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The Hearsay Speech Understanding System: An Example of the Recognition Process

Classics

This paper describes the structure and operation of the Hearsay speech understanding system by the use of a specific example illustrating the various stages of recognition. The system consists of a set of cooperating independent processes, each representing a source of Knowledge. The knowledge is used either to predict what may appear in a given context or to verify hypotheses resulting from a prediction. The structure of the system is illustrated by considering its Operation in a particular task situation: Voice-Chess. The representation and use of various sources of knowledge are outlined. Preliminary results of the reduction in search resulting from the use of various sources of knowledge are given.See also: IEEE Transactions on Computers C-25:427-431.(1976).In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.


Computer Description of Textured Surfaces

Classics

This work deals with computer analysis of textured surfaces. Descriptions of textures are form­alized from natural language descriptions. Local texture descriptions are obtained from the directional and non-directional components of the Fourier transform power spectrum. Analytic expressions are de­rived for orientation, contrast, size, spacing, and in periodic cases, the locations of texture elements. The local descriptions are defined over windows of varying sizes.See also: ACM Digital Library.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Stanford University Stanford, California, 20-23 August


A universal modular actor formalism for artificial intelligence

Classics

This paper proposes a modular ACTOR architecture and definitional method for artificial intelligence that is conceptually based on a single kind of object: actors [or, if you will, virtual processors, activation frames, or streams]. The formalism makes no presuppositions about the representation of primitive data structures and control structures. Such structures can be programmed, micro-coded, or hard wired 1n a uniform modular fashion. In fact it is impossible to determine whether a given object is "really" represented as a list, a vector, a hash table, a function, or a process. The architecture will efficiently run the coming generation of PLANNER-like artificial intelligence languages including those requiring a high degree of parallelism. The efficiency is gained without loss of programming generality because it only makes certain actors more efficient; it does not change their behavioral characteristics. The architecture is general with respect to control structure and does not have or need goto, interrupt, or semaphore primitives. The formalism achieves the goals that the disallowed constructs are intended to achieve by other more structured methods.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.


Forecasting and Assessing the Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Society

Classics

At the present stage of research in artificial intelligence , machines are stil l remote from achieving a level of intelligence comparable in complexity to human thought. As computer applications become more sophisticated, however, and thus more influential in human affairs , it becomes increasingly important to understand both the capabilities and limitations of machine Intelligence and its potential impact on society. To this end, the artificial intelligence field was ex­amined in a systematic manner. The study was divided into two parts : (1) Delineation of areas of artificial intelligence, and postulatio " of hypothetical prod­ucts resulting from progress in the field , and (2) A judgmental portion, which involved appli­cations and implications of the products to society . For the latter purpose, a Delphi study was conducted among experts in the artificial intelligence field to solicit their opinion concerning prototype and com­mercial dates for the products, and the possibility and desirability of their applications and implications .In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.


Interpreting pictures of polyhedral scenes

Classics

"A program that achieves the interpretation of line drawings as polyhedral scenes is described. The method is based on general coherence rules that the surfaces and edges must satisfy, thereby avoiding the use of predetermined interpretations of particular categories of picture junctions and corners." The paper also comments on the relationship of this program to four other scene analysis programs.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California. Revised version in Artificial Intelligence 4:121-137.


A LISP Machine with Very Compact Programs

Classics

This paper presents a machine designed for compact representation and rapid execution of LISP programs. The machine language is a factor of 2 to 5 more compact than S-expressions or conventional compiled code, and the.compiler is extremely simple. The encoding scheme is potentiall y applicable to data as wel l as program. The machine also provides for user-defined data structures.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.


On the Mechanization of Abductive Logic

Classics

Abduction is a basic form of logical inference, which is said to engender the use of plans, perceptual models, intuitions, and analogical reasoning - all aspects of Intelligent behavior that have so far failed to find representation in existing formal deductive systems. This paper explores the abductive reasoning process and develops a model for it s mechanization, .which consists of an embedding of deductive logic in an iterative hypothesis and test procedure. An application of the method to the problem of medical diagnosis is discussed.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.


Some necessary conditions for a master chess program

Classics

Since 1967 there has again been great interest in chess programming. This paper demonstrates that the structure of today's most successful programs cannot be extended to play Master level chess. Certain basic requirements of a Master player's performance are shown to be outside the performance limits to which a program of this type could be extended. The paper also examines a basic weakness in the tree-searching model approach when applied to situations that cannot be searched to completion. This is the Horizon Effect, which causes unpredictable evaluation errors due to an interaction between the static evaluation function and the rules for search termination. The outline of a model of chess playing that avoids the Horizon Effect and appears extendable to play Master level chess is presented, together with some results already achievedIn IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California, pp. 77-85


Control Algorithm of the Walker Climbing Over Obstacles

Classics

The paper deals with the problem of development the multilevel control algorithms fo r six-legged automatic walker, which provide the walker with the possibility to analyse the terrain profile before it while moving over rough terrain , and to synthesize adequate, rather reasonable kinematics of body and legs for walker's locomotion along the route and climbing over obstacles on it s way. DC simulation and analysis of walker's model moving image on DC display screen make it possible to evaluate the algorithms developed and to find ways for their improvement.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.