If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
A program was writte n to solve calculus word problems. The program, CARPS (CAlculus Rate Problem Solver), is restricte d to rate problems. The overall plan of the program is simila r to Bobrow's STUDENT, the primary difference being the introductio n of "structures " as the internal model in CARPS. Structures are stored internally as trees, each structure holding the information gathered about one object.In Walker, D. E. & Norton, L. N. (eds. ), IJCAI 1969: INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, May 7-9, 1969 Washington, D. C., pp. 241-252
PLANNER is a language for proving theorems and manipulating models in a robot. The language is built out of a number of problem solving primitives together with a hierarchical control structure. Statements can be asserted and perhaps later withdrawn as the state of the world changes. Conclusions can be drawn from these various changes in state. Goals can be established and dismissed when they are satisfied . The deductive system of PLANNER is subordinate to the hierarchical control structure in order to make the language efficient . The use of a general purpose matching language makes the deductive system more powerful. In IJCAI-69, pp. 295-301.
"A computer program capable of acting intelligently in the world must have a general representation of the world in terms of which its inputs are interpreted. Designing such a program requires commitments about what knowledge is and how it is obtained. Thus, some of the major traditional problems of philosophy arise in artificial intelligence.More specifically, we want a computer program that decides what to do by inferring in a formal language that a certain strategy will achieve its assigned goal. This requires formalizing concepts of causality, ability, and knowledge. Such formalisms are also considered in philosophical logic." - from the Introduction reprinted in Matthew Ginsberg (ed.), Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning, pp. 26-45, San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., 1987.Stanford web version. D. Michie and B. Meltzer (Eds.), Machine intelligence 4 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 463-502