If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Simplified models of the lateral geniculate nucles (LGN) and striate cortex illustrate the possibility that feedback to the LG N may be used for robust, low-level pattern analysis. The information fed back to the LG N is rebroadcast to cortex using the LG N's full fan-out, so the cortex-LGN-cortex pathway mediates extensive cortico-cortical communication while keeping the number of necessary connections small.
We present the information-theoretic derivation of a learning algorithm that clusters unlabelled data with linear discriminants. In contrast to methods that try to preserve information about the input patterns, we maximize the information gained from observing the output of robust binary discriminators implemented with sigmoid nodes. We deri ve a local weight adaptation rule via gradient ascent in this objective, demonstrate its dynamics on some simple data sets, relate our approach to previous work and suggest directions in which it may be extended.
The ensemble dynamics of stochastic learning algorithms can be studied using theoretical techniques from statistical physics. We develop the equations of motion for the weight space probability densities for stochastic learning algorithms. We discuss equilibria in the diffusion approximation and provide expressions for special cases of the LMS algorithm. The equilibrium densities are not in general thermal (Gibbs) distributions in the objective function being minimized, but rather depend upon an effective potential that includes diffusion effects. Finally we present an exact analytical expression for the time evolution of the density for a learning algorithm with weight updates proportional to the sign of the gradient.
How can artificial neural nets generalize better from fewer examples? In order to generalize successfully, neural network learning methods typically require large training data sets. We introduce a neural network learning method that generalizes rationally from many fewer data points, relying instead on prior knowledge encoded in previously learned neural networks. For example, in robot control learning tasks reported here, previously learned networks that model the effects of robot actions are used to guide subsequent learning of robot control functions. For each observed training example of the target function (e.g. the robot control policy), the learner explains the observed example in terms of its prior knowledge, then analyzes this explanation to infer additional information about the shape, or slope, of the target function. This shape knowledge is used to bias generalization when learning the target function. Results are presented applying this approach to a simulated robot task based on reinforcement learning.
When m n, we say that the manipulator has redundant degrees--of -freedom (dot). The inverse kinematics problem is the following: given a desired workspace location x, find joint variables 0 such that f(O) x. Even when the forward kinematics is known, 255 256 DeMers and Kreutz-Delgado the inverse kinematics for a manipulator is not generically solvable in closed form (Craig. 1986).
We present an algorithm for creating a neural network which produces accurate probability estimates as outputs. The network implements a Gibbs probability distribution model of the training database. This model is created by a new transformation relating the joint probabilities of attributes in the database to the weights (Gibbs potentials) of the distributed network model. The theory of this transformation is presented together with experimental results. One advantage of this approach is the network weights are prescribed without iterative gradient descent. Used as a classifier the network tied or outperformed published results on a variety of databases.
In stochastic learning, weights are random variables whose time evolution is governed by a Markov process. We summarize the theory of the time evolution of P, and give graphical examples of the time evolution that contrast the behavior of stochastic learning with true gradient descent (batch learning). Finally, we use the formalism to obtain predictions of the time required for noise-induced hopping between basins of different optima. We compare the theoretical predictions with simulations of large ensembles of networks for simple problems in supervised and unsupervised learning. Despite the recent application of convergence theorems from stochastic approximation theory to neural network learning (Oja 1982, White 1989) there remain outstanding questions about the search dynamics in stochastic learning.
Language inference and automata induction using recurrent neural networks has gained considerable interest in the recent years. Nevertheless, success of these models has been mostly limited to regular languages. Additional information in form of a priori knowledge has proved important and at times necessary for learning complex languages (Abu-Mostafa 1990; AI-Mashouq and Reed, 1991; Omlin and Giles, 1992; Towell, 1990). They have demonstrated that partial information incorporated in a connectionist model guides the learning process through constraints for efficient learning and better generalization. 'Ve have previously shown that the NNPDA model can learn Deterministic Context 65 66 Das, Giles, and Sun