If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
We present an application of back-propagation networks to handwritten digitrecognition. Minimal preprocessing of the data was required, but architecture of the network was highly constrained and specifically designed for the task. The input of the network consists of normalized images of isolated digits. The method has 1 % error rate and about a 9% reject rate on zipcode digits provided by the U.S. Postal Service. 1 INTRODUCTION The main point of this paper is to show that large back-propagation (BP) networks canbe applied to real image-recognition problems without a large, complex preprocessing stage requiring detailed engineering. Unlike most previous work on the subject (Denker et al., 1989), the learning network is directly fed with images, rather than feature vectors, thus demonstrating the ability of BP networks to deal with large amounts of low level information. Previous work performed on simple digit images (Le Cun, 1989) showed that the architecture of the network strongly influences the network's generalization ability. Good generalization can only be obtained by designing a network architecture that contains a certain amount of a priori knowledge about the problem. The basic design principleis to minimize the number of free parameters that must be determined by the learning algorithm, without overly reducing the computational power of the network.
ABSTRACT The CHAC storage scheme has been used as a basis for a software implementation of an associative .emory A major disadvantage of this CHAC-concept is that the degree of local generalization (area of interpolation) isfixed. This paper deals with an algorithm for self-organizing variable generalization for the AKS, based on ideas of T. Kohonen. 1 INTRODUCTION For several years research at the Department of Control Theory andRobotics at the Technical University of Darmstadt has been concerned with the design of a learning real-time control loop with neuron-like associative memories (LERNAS) A Self-organizing Associative Memory System for Control Applications 333 for the control of unknown, nonlinear processes (Ersue, Tolle, 1988). This control concept uses an associative memory systemAHS, based on the cerebellar cortex model CHAC by Albus (Albus, 1972), for the storage of a predictive nonlinear processmodel and an appropriate nonlinear control strategy (Fig.1). Figure 1: The learning control loop LERNAS One problem for adjusting the control loop to a process is, however, to find a suitable set of parameters for the associative memory.The parameters in question determine the degree of generalization within the memory and therefore have a direct influence on the number of training steps required tolearn the process behaviour. For a good performance of the control loop it· is desirable to have a very small generalization around a given setpoint but to have a large generalization elsewhere.
Pentti Kanerva Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science Mail Stop 230-5, NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California 94035 ABSTRACT Contour maps provide a general method for recognizing two-dimensional shapes. All but blank images give rise to such maps, and people are good at recognizing objects and shapes from them. The maps are encoded easily in long feature vectors that are suitable for recognition by an associative memory. These properties of contour maps suggest a role for them in early visual perception. The prevalence of direction-sensitive neurons in the visual cortex of mammals supports this view.
Given a set of input-output training samples, we describe a procedure fordetermining the time sequence of weights for a dynamic neural network to model an arbitrary input-output process. We formulate the input-output mapping problem as an optimal control problem,defining a performance index to be minimized as a function of time-varying weights.
We have used information-theoretic ideas to derive a class of practical andnearly optimal schemes for adapting the size of a neural network. By removing unimportant weights from a network, several improvementscan be expected: better generalization, fewer training examples required, and improved speed of learning and/or classification. The basic idea is to use second-derivative information tomake a tradeoff between network complexity and training set error. Experiments confirm the usefulness of the methods on a real-world application. 1 INTRODUCTION Most successful applications of neural network learning to real-world problems have been achieved using highly structured networks of rather large size [for example (Waibel, 1989; Le Cun et al., 1990a)]. As applications become more complex, the networks will presumably become even larger and more structured.
The distributed-neuron synapses are arranged inblocks of 16, which we call '4 x 4 tiles'. Switch matrices are interleaved between each of these tiles to provide programmability ofinterconnections. With a small area overhead (15 %), the 1024 units of the network can be rearranged in various configurations. Someof the possible configurations are, a 12-32-12 network, a 16-12-12-16 network, two 12-32 networks etc. (the numbers separated bydashes indicate the number of units per layer, including the input layer). Weights are stored in analog form on MaS capacitors.