Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project


Artificial intelligence, or AI, is largely an experimental science—at least as much progress has been made by building and analyzing programs as by examining theoretical questions. MYCIN is one of several well-known programs that embody some intelligence and provide data on the extent to which intelligent behavior can be programmed. As with other AI programs, its development was slow and not always in a forward direction. But we feel we learned some useful lessons in the course of nearly a decade of work on MYCIN and related programs. In this book we share the results of many experiments performed in that time, and we try to paint a coherent picture of the work. The book is intended to be a critical analysis of several pieces of related research, performed by a large number of scientists. We believe that the whole field of AI will benefit from such attempts to take a detailed retrospective look at experiments, for in this way the scientific foundations of the field will gradually be defined. It is for all these reasons that we have prepared this analysis of the MYCIN experiments.ContentsContributorsForewordAllen NewellPrefacePart One: BackgroundChapter 1—The Context of the MYCIN ExperimentsChapter 2—The Origin of Rule-Based Systems in AIRandall Davis and Jonathan J. KingPart Two: Using RulesChapter 3—The Evolution of MYCIN’s Rule FormChapter 4—The Structure of the MYCIN SystemWilliam van MelleChapter 5—Details of the Consultation SystemEdward H. ShortliffeChapter 6—Details of the Revised Therapy AlgorithmWilliam J. ClanceyPart Three: Building a Knowledge BaseChapter 7—Knowledge EngineeringChapter 8—Completeness and Consistency in a Rule-Based SystemMotoi Suwa, A. Carlisle Scott, and Edward H. ShortliffeChapter 9—Interactive Transfer of ExpertiseRandall Davis[#p4]] Part Four: Reasoning Under UncertaintyChapter 10—Uncertainty and Evidential SupportChapter 11—A Model of Inexact Reasoning in MedicineEdward H. Shortliffe and Bruce G. BuchananChapter 12—Probabilistic Reasoning and Certainty FactorsJ. Barclay AdamsChapter 13—The Dempster-Shafer Theory of EvidenceJean Gordon and Edward H. ShortliffePart Five: Generalizing MYCINChapter 14—Use of the MYCIN Inference EngineChapter 15—EMYCIN: A Knowledge Engineer’s Tool for Constructing Rule-Based Expert SystemsWilliam van Melle, Edward H. Shortliffe, and Bruce G. BuchananChapter 16—Experience Using EMYCINJames S. Bennett and Robert S. EngelmorePart Six: Explaining the ReasoningChapter 17—Explanation as a Topic of AI ResearchChapter 18—Methods for Generating ExplanationsA. Carlisle Scott, William J. Clancey, Randall Davis, and Edward H. ShortliffeChapter 19—Specialized Explanations for Dosage SelectionSharon Wraith Bennett and A. Carlisle ScottChapter 20—Customized Explanations Using Causal KnowledgeJerold W. Wallis and Edward H. ShortliffePart Seven: Using Other RepresentationsChapter 21—Other Representation FrameworksChapter 22—Extensions to the Rule-Based Formalism for a Monitoring TaskLawrence M. Fagan, John C. Kunz, Edward A. Feigenbaum, and John J. OsbornChapter 23—A Representation Scheme Using Both Frames and RulesJanice S. AikinsChapter 24—Another Look at FramesDavid E. Smith and Jan E. ClaytonPart Eight: TutoringChapter 25—Intelligent Computer-Aided InstructionChapter 26—Use of MYCIN’s Rules for TutoringWilliam J. ClanceyPart Nine: Augmenting the RulesChapter 27—Additional Knowledge StructuresChapter 28—Meta-Level KnowledgeRandall Davis and Bruce G. BuchananChapter 29—Extensions to Rules for Explanation and TutoringWilliam J. ClanceyPart Ten: Evaluating PerformanceChapter 30—The Problem of EvaluationChapter 31—An Evaluation of MYCIN’s AdviceVictor L. Yu, Lawrence M. Fagan, Sharon Wraith Bennett, William J . Clancey, A. Carlisle Scott, John F. Hannigan, Robert L. Blum, Bruce G. Buchanan, and Stanley N. CohenPart Eleven: Designing for Human UseChapter 32—Human Engineering of Medical Expert SystemsChapter 33—Strategies for Understanding Structured EnglishAlain BonnetChapter 34—An Analysis of Physicians’ AttitudesRandy L. Teach and Edward H. ShortliffeChapter 35—An Expert System for Oncology Protocol ManagementEdward H. Shortliffe, A. Carlisle Scott, Miriam B. Bischoff, A. Bruce Campbell, William van MeUe, and Charlotte D. JacobsPart Twelve: ConclusionsChapter 36—Major Lessons from This WorkEpilogAppendixReferencesName IndexSubject IndexReading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.

Research at The University of Texas

AI Magazine

Research in artificial intelligence at the University of Texas at Austin is diverse. It is spread across many departments(Computer Science, Mathematics, the Institute for Computer Science and Computer Applications, and the Linguistics Research Center) and it covers most of the major subareas with AI (natural language, theorem proving, knowledge representation, languages for AI, and applications). Related work is also being done in several other departments, including EE (low-level vision), Psychology, Linguistics, and the Center for Cognitive Science.

Introduction to the COMTEX Microfiche Edition of Memos from the Stanford University Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

AI Magazine

The Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, later known as the Stanford AI Lab or SAIL, was created by Prof. John McCarthy shortly after his arrival at Stanford on 1962. As a faculty member in the Computer Science Division of the Mathematics Department, McCarthy began supervising research in artificial intelligence and timesharing systems with a few students. From this small start, McCarthy built a large and active research organization involving many other faculty and research projects as well as his own. Nevertheless, there are some important dimensions to the research that took place in the AI Lab that will try to put in historical context in this brief introduction.

Artificial Intelligence Needs More Emphasis on Basic Research: President's Quarterly Message

AI Magazine

Too few people are doing basic research in AI relative to the number working on applications. The ratio of basic/applied is less in AI than in the older sciences and than in computer science generally. This is unfortunate, because reaching human level artificial intelligence will require fundamental conceptual advances.

Toward a Unified Approach for Conceptual Knowledge Acquisition

AI Magazine

In keeping with a desire to abstract general principles in AI, this article begins to examine some relationships among heuristic learning in search, classification of utility, properties of certain structures, measurement of acquired knowledge, and efficiency of associated learning. In the process, a simple definition is given for conceptual knowledge, considered as information compression. The discussion concludes that domain-specific conceptual knowledge can be acquired. Among other implications of the analysis is that statistical observation of probabilities can result in the equivalent of planning, in low susceptibility to error, and in efficient learning.

Artificial Intelligence Prepares for 2001

AI Magazine

Artificial Intelligence, as a maturing scientific/engineering discipline, is beginning to find its niche among the variety of subjects that are relevant to intelligent, perceptive behavior. A view of AI is presented that is based on a declarative representation of knowledge with semantic attachments to problem-specific procedures and data structures. Several important challenges to this view are briefly discussed. It is argued that research in the field would be stimulated by a project to develop a computer individual that would have a continuing existence in time.

What Should Artificial Intelligence Want from the Supercomputers?

AI Magazine

While some proposals for supercomputers increase the powers of existing machines like CDC and Cray supercomputers, others suggest radical changes of architecture to speed up non-traditional operations such as logical inference in PROLOG, recognition/ action in production systems, or message passing. We examine the case of parallel PROLOG to identify several related computations which subsume those of parallel PROLOG, but which have much wider interest, and which may have roughly the same difficulty of mechanization. Similar considerations apply to some other proposed architectures as well, raising the possibility that current efforts may be limiting their aims unnecessarily.

Research at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

AI Magazine

AI research at JPL started in 1972 when design and construction of experimental "Mars Rover" began. Early in that effort, it was recognized that rover planning capabilities were inadequate. Research in planning was begun in 1975, and work on a succession of AI expert systems of steadily increasing power has continued to the present. Within the group, we have concentrated our efforts on expert systems, although work on vision and robotics has continued in a separate organizations, with which we have maintained informal contacts.

Artificial Intelligence Research in the People's Republic of China: A Review

AI Magazine

Artificial Intelligence Research in the People's Republic of China: A Review Abstract Since the 1970's AI research has become very active in China and certain results have been achieved. This paper is intended to review briefly what was and is going on in AI field in China. Since the 1970's AI research has become very active in China and certain results have been achieved. This paper is intended to review briefly what was and is going on in AI field in China.