The ability of digital storytelling agents to evaluate their output is important for ensuring high-quality human-agent interactions. However, evaluating stories remains an open problem. Past evaluative techniques are either model-specific--- which measure features of the model but do not evaluate the generated stories ---or require direct human feedback, which is resource-intensive. We introduce a number of story features that correlate with human judgments of stories and present algorithms that can measure these features. We find this approach results in a proxy for human-subject studies for researchers evaluating story generation systems.
Partlan, Nathan (Northeastern University) | Carstensdottir, Elin (Northeastern University) | Snodgrass, Sam (Northeastern University) | Kleinman, Erica (Northeastern University) | Smith, Gillian (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) | Harteveld, Casper (Northeastern University) | El-Nasr, Magy Seif (Northeastern University)
Analysis of interactive narrative is a complex undertaking, requiring understanding of the narrative's design, its affordances, and its impact on players. Analysis is often performed by an expert, but this is expensive and difficult for complex interactive narratives. Automated analysis of structure, the organization of interaction elements, could help augment an expert's analysis. For this purpose we developed a model consisting of a set of metrics to analyze interactive narrative structure, enabled by a novel multi-graph representation. We implemented this model for an interactive scenario authoring tool called StudyCrafter and analyzed 20 student-designed scenarios. We show that the model illuminates the structures and groupings of the scenarios. This work provides insight for manual analysis of attributes of interactive narratives and a starting point for automated design assistance.
Oliveira, Victor M. (Universidade Federal de Goias) | Nascimento, Hugo A. D. do (Universidade Federal de Goias) | Soares, Fabrizzio A. A. M. N. (Universidade Federal de Goias) | Rocha, Cleomar S. (Universidade Federal de Goias)
In the present paper we explore the idea of combining computation power and the availability of ordinary art spectators in order to produce new interactive art works. This is investigated for a particular application, which consists of producing new behaviors for a programmable art apparatus named C3 Cubes. Given the nature of the problem and some difficult challenges to be dealt with, an Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) approach was devised. Furthermore, it was necessary to adopt a surrogate function method for approximating the user's preferences and to implement a Web-based virtual simulation environment for speeding up the generation and the evaluation of C3 Cubes projects. The integration of all these elements is crucial for producing new user-guided cube projects with interesting behaviors. The main approaches experimented in this research and the proposed design solutions are useful to solving similar problems in other domain areas, for example, in the context of game design.
Moraes, Rubens O. (Universidade Federal de Viçosa) | Mariño, Julian R. H. (Universidade de São Paulo) | Lelis, Levi H. S. (Universidade Federal de Viçosa) | Nascimento, Mario A. (University of Alberta)
Search algorithms based on combinatorial multi-armed bandits (CMABs) are promising for dealing with state-space sequential decision problems. However, current CMAB-based algorithms do not scale to problem domains with very large actions spaces, such as real-time strategy games played in large maps. In this paper we introduce CMAB-based search algorithms that use action abstraction schemes to reduce the action space considered during search. One of the approaches we introduce use regular action abstractions (A1N), while the other two use asymmetric action abstractions (A2N and A3N). Empirical results on MicroRTS show that A1N, A2N, and A3N are able to outperform an existing CMAB-based algorithm in matches played in large maps, and A3N is able to outperform all state-of-the-art search algorithms tested.
The ability to extract the sequence of game events for a given player's play-through has traditionally required access to the game's engine or source code. This serves as a barrier to researchers, developers, and hobbyists who might otherwise benefit from these game logs. In this paper we present two approaches to derive game logs from game video via convolutional neural networks and transfer learning. We evaluate the approaches in a Super Mario Bros. clone, Mega Man and Skyrim. Our results demonstrate our approach outperforms random forest and other transfer baselines.
Games are inherently situated within the cultures of their players. Players bring a wide range of knowledge and expectations to a game, and the more the game suggests connections to that culture, the stronger those expectations are and/or the more problematic they can be. MKULTRA is an experimental, AI-heavy game that ran afoul of those issues. It’s interesting to hear a talk about or to see demonstrated by the author, but frustrating for players who do not already understand its internals in some detail. In this paper, I will give a postmortem of the game, in the rough style of industry postmortems from venues such as Gamasutra or GDC. I will discuss the goals and design of the game, what went right, what went wrong, and what I should have done instead. In my discussions of the game’s problems, I’ll focus on the ways in which it frustrated the players’ cultural expectations, and what we can learn from them for the design of future games.
Answer-set programming (ASP), a family of SAT-based logic programming systems, is attractive for procedural content generation. Unfortunately, current solvers present significant barriers to runtime use in games. In this paper, I discuss some of the issues involved, and present CatSAT, a solver designed to better fit the run-time resource constraints of modern games. Although intended only for small problems, it allows designers to compactly specify simple PCG problems such as NPC generation, solve them in a few tens of microseconds, and to adapt solutions dynamically based on the changing needs of gameplay. We hope that by making adoption as convenient as possible, we can increase the uptake of declarative techniques among developers.
Automated game design has remained a key challenge within the field of Game AI. In this paper, we introduce a method for recombining existing games to create new games through a process called conceptual expansion.Prior automated game design approaches have relied on hand-authored or crowd-sourced knowledge, which limits the scope and applications of such systems. Our approach instead relies on machine learning to learn approximate representations of games. Our approach recombines knowledge from these learned representations to create new games via conceptual expansion.We evaluate this approach by demonstrating the ability for the system to recreate existing games. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first machine learning-based automated game design system.
Social deduction games present a unique challenge for AI agents, because communication plays a central role in most of them, and deception plays a key role in game play. To be successful in such games, players need to come up with convincing stories, but also discern the truth of statements of other players and adapt to the information learned from them. In this paper we present an approach for virtual agents that have to determine how long to stick to their story in the light of information obtained from other players. We apply this approach to a particular social deduction game, One Night Ultimate Werewolf, and demonstrate the effect of different levels of commitment to an agent's story.
Modeling player engagement is a key challenge in games. However, the gameplay signatures of engaged players can be highly context-sensitive, varying based on where the game is used or what population of players is using it. Traditionally, models of player engagement are investigated in a particular context, and it is unclear how effectively these models generalize to other settings and populations. In this work, we investigate a Bayesian hierarchical linear model for multi-task learning to devise a model of player engagement from a pair of datasets that were gathered in two complementary contexts: a Classroom Study with middle school students and a Laboratory Study with undergraduate students. Both groups of players used similar versions of Crystal Island, an educational interactive narrative game for science learning. Results indicate that the Bayesian hierarchical model outperforms both pooled and context-specific models in cross-validation measures of predicting player motivation from in-game behaviors, particularly for the smaller Classroom Study group. Further, we find that the posterior distributions of model parameters indicate that the coefficient for a measure of gameplay performance significantly differs between groups. Drawing upon their capacity to share information across groups, hierarchical Bayesian methods provide an effective approach for modeling player engagement with data from similar, but different, contexts.