Consistent Bounded-Asynchronous Parameter Servers for Distributed ML

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In distributed ML applications, shared parameters are usually replicated among computing nodes to minimize network overhead. Therefore, proper consistency model must be carefully chosen to ensure algorithm's correctness and provide high throughput. Existing consistency models used in general-purpose databases and modern distributed ML systems are either too loose to guarantee correctness of the ML algorithms or too strict and thus fail to fully exploit the computing power of the underlying distributed system. Many ML algorithms fall into the category of \emph{iterative convergent algorithms} which start from a randomly chosen initial point and converge to optima by repeating iteratively a set of procedures. We've found that many such algorithms are to a bounded amount of inconsistency and still converge correctly. This property allows distributed ML to relax strict consistency models to improve system performance while theoretically guarantees algorithmic correctness. In this paper, we present several relaxed consistency models for asynchronous parallel computation and theoretically prove their algorithmic correctness. The proposed consistency models are implemented in a distributed parameter server and evaluated in the context of a popular ML application: topic modeling.


GPatt: Fast Multidimensional Pattern Extrapolation with Gaussian Processes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Gaussian processes are typically used for smoothing and interpolation on small datasets. We introduce a new Bayesian nonparametric framework -- GPatt -- enabling automatic pattern extrapolation with Gaussian processes on large multidimensional datasets. GPatt unifies and extends highly expressive kernels and fast exact inference techniques. Without human intervention -- no hand crafting of kernel features, and no sophisticated initialisation procedures -- we show that GPatt can solve large scale pattern extrapolation, inpainting, and kernel discovery problems, including a problem with 383400 training points. We find that GPatt significantly outperforms popular alternative scalable Gaussian process methods in speed and accuracy. Moreover, we discover profound differences between each of these methods, suggesting expressive kernels, nonparametric representations, and exact inference are useful for modelling large scale multidimensional patterns.


Inference of Network Summary Statistics Through Network Denoising

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Consider observing an undirected network that is `noisy' in the sense that there are Type I and Type II errors in the observation of edges. Such errors can arise, for example, in the context of inferring gene regulatory networks in genomics or functional connectivity networks in neuroscience. Given a single observed network then, to what extent are summary statistics for that network representative of their analogues for the true underlying network? Can we infer such statistics more accurately by taking into account the noise in the observed network edges? In this paper, we answer both of these questions. In particular, we develop a spectral-based methodology using the adjacency matrix to `denoise' the observed network data and produce more accurate inference of the summary statistics of the true network. We characterize performance of our methodology through bounds on appropriate notions of risk in the $L^2$ sense, and conclude by illustrating the practical impact of this work on synthetic and real-world data.


Gaussian Process Kernels for Pattern Discovery and Extrapolation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Gaussian processes are rich distributions over functions, which provide a Bayesian nonparametric approach to smoothing and interpolation. We introduce simple closed form kernels that can be used with Gaussian processes to discover patterns and enable extrapolation. These kernels are derived by modelling a spectral density -- the Fourier transform of a kernel -- with a Gaussian mixture. The proposed kernels support a broad class of stationary covariances, but Gaussian process inference remains simple and analytic. We demonstrate the proposed kernels by discovering patterns and performing long range extrapolation on synthetic examples, as well as atmospheric CO2 trends and airline passenger data. We also show that we can reconstruct standard covariances within our framework.


Feature vector regularization in machine learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Problems in machine learning (ML) can involve noisy input data, and ML classification methods have reached limiting accuracies when based on standard ML data sets consisting of feature vectors and their classes. Greater accuracy will require incorporation of prior structural information on data into learning. We study methods to regularize feature vectors (unsupervised regularization methods), analogous to supervised regularization for estimating functions in ML. We study regularization (denoising) of ML feature vectors using Tikhonov and other regularization methods for functions on ${\bf R}^n$. A feature vector ${\bf x}=(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=\{x_q\}_{q=1}^n$ is viewed as a function of its index $q$, and smoothed using prior information on its structure. This can involve a penalty functional on feature vectors analogous to those in statistical learning, or use of proximity (e.g. graph) structure on the set of indices. Such feature vector regularization inherits a property from function denoising on ${\bf R}^n$, in that accuracy is non-monotonic in the denoising (regularization) parameter $\alpha$. Under some assumptions about the noise level and the data structure, we show that the best reconstruction accuracy also occurs at a finite positive $\alpha$ in index spaces with graph structures. We adapt two standard function denoising methods used on ${\bf R}^n$, local averaging and kernel regression. In general the index space can be any discrete set with a notion of proximity, e.g. a metric space, a subset of ${\bf R}^n$, or a graph/network, with feature vectors as functions with some notion of continuity. We show this improves feature vector recovery, and thus the subsequent classification or regression done on them. We give an example in gene expression analysis for cancer classification with the genome as an index space and network structure based protein-protein interactions.


Fused Multiple Graphical Lasso

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating multiple graphical models simultaneously using the fused lasso penalty, which encourages adjacent graphs to share similar structures. A motivating example is the analysis of brain networks of Alzheimer's disease using neuroimaging data. Specifically, we may wish to estimate a brain network for the normal controls (NC), a brain network for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and a brain network for Alzheimer's patients (AD). We expect the two brain networks for NC and MCI to share common structures but not to be identical to each other; similarly for the two brain networks for MCI and AD. The proposed formulation can be solved using a second-order method. Our key technical contribution is to establish the necessary and sufficient condition for the graphs to be decomposable. Based on this key property, a simple screening rule is presented, which decomposes the large graphs into small subgraphs and allows an efficient estimation of multiple independent (small) subgraphs, dramatically reducing the computational cost. We perform experiments on both synthetic and real data; our results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.


A Fused Elastic Net Logistic Regression Model for Multi-Task Binary Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Multi-task learning has shown to significantly enhance the performance of multiple related learning tasks in a variety of situations. We present the fused logistic regression, a sparse multi-task learning approach for binary classification. Specifically, we introduce sparsity inducing penalties over parameter differences of related logistic regression models to encode similarity across related tasks. The resulting joint learning task is cast into a form that lends itself to be efficiently optimized with a recursive variant of the alternating direction method of multipliers. We show results on synthetic data and describe the regime of settings where our multi-task approach achieves significant improvements over the single task learning approach and discuss the implications on applying the fused logistic regression in different real world settings.


Structure-Aware Dynamic Scheduler for Parallel Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Training large machine learning (ML) models with many variables or parameters can take a long time if one employs sequential procedures even with stochastic updates. A natural solution is to turn to distributed computing on a cluster; however, naive, unstructured parallelization of ML algorithms does not usually lead to a proportional speedup and can even result in divergence, because dependencies between model elements can attenuate the computational gains from parallelization and compromise correctness of inference. Recent efforts toward this issue have benefited from exploiting the static, a priori block structures residing in ML algorithms. In this paper, we take this path further by exploring the dynamic block structures and workloads therein present during ML program execution, which offers new opportunities for improving convergence, correctness, and load balancing in distributed ML. We propose and showcase a general-purpose scheduler, STRADS, for coordinating distributed updates in ML algorithms, which harnesses the aforementioned opportunities in a systematic way. We provide theoretical guarantees for our scheduler, and demonstrate its efficacy versus static block structures on Lasso and Matrix Factorization.


Assessment of Customer Credit through Combined Clustering of Artificial Neural Networks, Genetics Algorithm and Bayesian Probabilities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Today, with respect to the increasing growth of demand to get credit from the customers of banks and finance and credit institutions, using an effective and efficient method to decrease the risk of non-repayment of credit given is very necessary. Assessment of customers' credit is one of the most important and the most essential duties of banks and institutions, and if an error occurs in this field, it would leads to the great losses for banks and institutions. Thus, using the predicting computer systems has been significantly progressed in recent decades. The data that are provided to the credit institutions' managers help them to make a straight decision for giving the credit or not-giving it. In this paper, we will assess the customer credit through a combined classification using artificial neural networks, genetics algorithm and Bayesian probabilities simultaneously, and the results obtained from three methods mentioned above would be used to achieve an appropriate and final result. We use the K_folds cross validation test in order to assess the method and finally, we compare the proposed method with the methods such as Clustering-Launched Classification (CLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM) as well as GA+SVM where the genetics algorithm has been used to improve them.


Towards a New Science of a Clinical Data Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we define Clinical Data Intelligence as the analysis of data generated in the clinical routine with the goal of improving patient care. We define a science of a Clinical Data Intelligence as a data analysis that permits the derivation of scientific, i.e., generalizable and reliable results. We argue that a science of a Clinical Data Intelligence is sensible in the context of a Big Data analysis, i.e., with data from many patients and with complete patient information. We discuss that Clinical Data Intelligence requires the joint efforts of knowledge engineering, information extraction (from textual and other unstructured data), and statistics and statistical machine learning. We describe some of our main results as conjectures and relate them to a recently funded research project involving two major German university hospitals.