If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
This paper is in the nature of a challenge to artificial intelligence experts. It suggests that the techniques of artificial intelligence should be applied to some realistic problems which exist in the programming and data processing fields. After a brief review of the little related existing work which has been done, the characteristics of programming problems which make them suitable for the application of artificial intelligence techniques are given. Specific illustrations of problems are provided under the broadcategories of data structure and organization, program structure and organization, improvements and corrections of programs, and language.In IJCAI-71: INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. British Computer Society, London.
"The Meta-DENDRAL program is a vehicle for studying problems of theory formation in science. The general strategy of Meta-DENDRAL is to reason from data to plausible generalizations and then to organize the generalizations into a unified theory. Three main subprobleras are discussed: (1) explain the experimental data for each individual chemical structure, (2) generalize the results from each structure to a l l structures, and (3) organize the generalizations into a unified theory. The program is built upon the concepts and programmed routines already available in the Heuristic DENDRAL performance program, but goes beyond the performance program in attempting to formulate the theory which the performance program will use."In IJCAI-71: INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. British Computer Society, London. pp. 40-50
Reprinted in Readings in Planning, edited by J. Allen, J. Hendler, and A. Tate, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, California, 1990. Also Reprinted in Computation and Intelligence: Collected Readings, edited by George F. Luger, AAAI Press, 1995. See also: Artificial Intelligence, Volume 2, Issues 3–4, Winter 1971, Pages 189–208 In IJCAI-71: INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. British Computer Society, London.. Revised version in Artificial Intelligence, 2(3), pp 189-208.
"Problem-solving methods using some sort of heurstically guided search process have been the subject of much research in Artificial Intelligence. This paper groups these problem-solving methods under three major headings: the State-Space Approach, the Problem-Reduction Approach and the Formal-Logic Approach." New York: McGraw-Hill.
We describe the analysis of visual scenes consisting of black on white drawings formed with curved lines, depicting familiar objects and forms: houses, trees, persons, and so on; for instance, drawings found in coloring books. The goal of such analysis is to recognize (by computer) such forms and shapes when present in the input scene; that is, to name (correctly) as many parts of the scene as possible: finger, hand, girl, dance, and so on. Complications occur because each input scene contains several such objects, partially occluding each other and in varying degrees of orientation, size, and so on. The analysis of these line drawings is an instance of'the context problem', which can be stated as'given that a set (a scene) is formed by components that locally (by their shape) are ambiguous, because each shape allows a component to have one of several possible values (a circle can be sun, ball, eye, hole) or meanings, can we make use of context information stated in the form of models, in order to single out for each component a value in such manner that the whole set (scene) is consistent or makes global sense?' Thus, shape drastically limits the values that a component could have, and further disambiguation is possible only by using global information (derived from several components and their interrelations or interconnections) under the assumption that the scene as a whole is meaningful. This paper proposes a way to solve'the context problem' in the paradigm of coloring book drawings. We have not implemented this approach; indeed, a purpose of this paper is to collect criticisms and suggestions.
This paper echoes, from a philosophical standpoint, the claim of McCarthy and Hayes that Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence have important relations. Philosophical problems about the use of “intuition” in reasoning are related, via a concept of anlogical representation, to problems in the simulation of perception, problem-solving and the generation of useful sets of possibilities in considering how to act. The requirements for intelligent decision-making proposed by McCarthy and Hayes are criticised as too narrow, and more general requirements are suggested instead.See also: Artificial Intelligence, Volume 2, Issues 3–4, Winter 1971, Pages 209–225In IJCAI 1971: INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.. Revised paper in Artificial Intelligence 2:209- 225
A general game-playing program must know the rules of the particular playing game. These rules are:(1) an algorithm indicating the winning state;(2) an algorithm enumerating legal moves. A move gives a set of changes from the present situation.There are two means of giving these rules:(1) We can write a subroutine which recognizes if we have won and another which enumerates legal moves. Such a subroutine is a black box giving to the calling program the answer: 'you win' or 'you do not win', or the list of legal moves. But it cannot know what is in that subroutine.(2) We can also define a language in which we describe the rules of a game. The program investigates the rules written with this language and finds some indications to improve its play. Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic Programming Edinburgh University Press