Modelling a player's understanding of NPC movements can be useful for adapting gameplay to different play styles. For stealth games, what a player knows or suspects of enemy movements is important to how they will navigate towards a solution. In this work, we build a uniform abstraction of potential player path knowledge based on their partial observations. We use this representation to compute different path estimates according to different player expectations. We augment our work with a user study that validates what kinds of NPC behaviour a player may expect, and develop a tool that can build and explore appropriate (expected) paths. We find that players prefer short simple paths over long or complex paths with looping or backtracking behaviour.
3D construction sandbox games such as Minecraft have provided new opportunities for people to express their creativity. However, individual players have few tools to help them learn about architectural style or how to improve the structure they are building. Ideally, players could utilize tools that capitalize on the large numbers of 3D models built by others to offer guidance for their particular project. We trained a neural network to classify a large collection of Minecraft models from various websites in terms of style (Ancient, Asian, Medieval, or Modern). We present experimental results demonstrating that our model can classify the user-indicated style of a structure with 55% accuracy. We further demonstrate use of this model to highlight nearest neighbors to a specific query structure. We have integrated these tools into a Minecraft Mod that allows players to classify their structure's style and view nearest neighbors in real-time.
Wiggins, Joseph B. (University of Florida) | Kulkarni, Mayank (University of Florida) | Min, Wookhee (North Carolina State University) | Mott, Bradford (North Carolina State University) | Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth (University of Florida) | Wiebe, Eric (North Carolina State University) | Lester, James (North Carolina State University)
Player affect is a central consideration in the design of game-based learning environments. Affective indicators such as facial expressions exhibited during gameplay may support building more robust player models and adaptation modules. In game-based learning, predicting player mental demand and engagement from player affect is a particularly promising approach to helping create more effective gameplay. This paper reports on a predictive player-modeling approach that observes player affect during early interactions with a game-based learning environment and predicts selfreports of mental demand and engagement at the conclusion of gameplay sessions. The findings show that automatically detected facial expressions such as those associated with joy, disgust, sadness, and surprise are significant predictors of players' self-reported engagement and mental demand at the end of gameplay interactions. The results suggest that it is possible to create affect-based predictive player models that can enable proactively tailored gameplay by anticipating player mental demand and engagement.
In this paper we tackle a problem of tile-based combat in the turn-based strategy (space 4X) video game Children of the Galaxy (CotG). We propose an improved version of Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) called MCTS considering hit points (MCTS HP). We show MCTS HP is superior to Portfolio greedy search (PGS), MCTS and NOKAV reactive agent in small to medium combat scenarios. MCTS HP performance is shown to be stable when compared to PGS, while it is also more time-efficient than regular MCTS. In smaller scenarios, the performance of MCTS HP with 100 millisecond time limit is comparable to MCTS with 2 seconds time limit. This fact is crucial for CotG as the combat outcome assessment is precursor to many strategical decisions in CotG game. Finally, if we fix the amount of search time given to the combat agent, we show that different techniques dominate different scales of combat situations. As the result, if searchbased techniques are to be deployed in commercial products, a combat agent will need to be implemented with portfolio of techniques it can choose from given the complexity of situation it is dealing with to smooth gameplay experience for human players.
Authoring in the context of Interactive Storytelling (IS) is inherently difficult, and there is a need for authoring tools that both enable and assist authors in the creation of new content. In this paper, we discuss our approach for creating an AI-assisted authoring tool via the concept of mixed-initiative systems. We introduce our tool, Mimisbrunnur, which uses this concept to assist authors in the creation of story content. We explain how the tool functions and introduce its fundamental components, including Natural Language Processing, a Suggestion Generator, and three authoring modules.
First we compare the believability of agent plans taken from the spaces of valid classical plans, intentional plans, and belief plans. We show that the plans that make the most sense to humans are those in the overlapping regions of the intentionality and belief spaces. Second, we validate the model's approach to representing anticipation, where characters form plans that involve actions they expect other characters to take. Using a short interactive scenario we demonstrate that players not only find it believable when NPCs anticipate their actions, but sometimes actively anticipate the actions of NPCs in a way that is consistent with the model.
Modeling player engagement is a key challenge in games. However, the gameplay signatures of engaged players can be highly context-sensitive, varying based on where the game is used or what population of players is using it. Traditionally, models of player engagement are investigated in a particular context, and it is unclear how effectively these models generalize to other settings and populations. In this work, we investigate a Bayesian hierarchical linear model for multi-task learning to devise a model of player engagement from a pair of datasets that were gathered in two complementary contexts: a Classroom Study with middle school students and a Laboratory Study with undergraduate students. Both groups of players used similar versions of Crystal Island, an educational interactive narrative game for science learning. Results indicate that the Bayesian hierarchical model outperforms both pooled and context-specific models in cross-validation measures of predicting player motivation from in-game behaviors, particularly for the smaller Classroom Study group. Further, we find that the posterior distributions of model parameters indicate that the coefficient for a measure of gameplay performance significantly differs between groups. Drawing upon their capacity to share information across groups, hierarchical Bayesian methods provide an effective approach for modeling player engagement with data from similar, but different, contexts.
In this paper we present an approach to using sequence analysis to model player behavior. This approach is designed to work in game development contexts, integrating production teams and delivering profiles that inform game design. We demonstrate the method via a case study of the game T om Clancy’s The Division, which with its 20 million players represents a major current commercial title. The approach presented provides a mixed-methods framework, combining qualitative knowledge elicitation and workshops with large-scale telemetry analysis, using sequence mining and clustering to develop detailed player profiles showing the core game-play loops of The Division’s players.
In order to create well-crafted learning progressions, designers guide players as they present game skills and give ample time for the player to master those skills. However, analyzing the quality of learning progressions is challenging, especially during the design phase, as content is ever-changing. This research presents the application of Stratabots — automated player simulations based on models of players with varying sets of skills — to the human computation game Foldit. Stratabot performance analysis coupled with player data reveals a relatively smooth learning progression within tutorial levels, yet still shows evidence for improvement. Leveraging existing general gameplaying algorithms such as Monte Carlo Evaluation can reduce the development time of this approach to automated playtesting without losing predicitive power of the player model.
Beaupre, Spencer (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) | Wiles, Thomas (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) | Briggs, Sean (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) | Smith, Gillian (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
Existing approaches to multi-game level generation rely upon level structure to emerge organically via level fitness. In this paper, we present a method for generating levels for games in the GVGAI framework using a design pattern-based approach, where design patterns are derived from an analysis of the existing corpus of GVGAI game levels. We created two new generators: one constructive, and one search-based, and compared them to a prior existing search-based generator. Results show that our generator is comparable, even preferred, over the prior generator, especially among players with existing game experience. Our search-based generator also outperforms our constructive generator in terms of player preference.