If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
An input vector in the feature space is transformed into an internal representation which is a codeword in the code space, and then error correction decoded in this space to classify the input feature vector to its class. Two classes of codes which give high performance are the Hadamard matrix code and the maximal length sequence code.
Please address all further correspondence to: John Y. Cheung School of EECS 202 W. Boyd, CEC 219 Norman, OK 73019 (405)325-4721 November,1987 American Institute of Physics 1988 165 MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF LEARNING BEHAVIOR OF NEURONAL MODELS John Y. Cheung and Massoud Omidvar School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science ABSTRACT In this paper, we wish to analyze the convergence behavior of a number of neuronal plasticity models. Recent neurophysiological research suggests that the neuronal behavior is adaptive. In particular, memory stored within a neuron is associated with the synaptic weights which are varied or adjusted to achieve learning. A number of adaptive neuronal models have been proposed in the literature. Three specific models will be analyzed in this paper, specifically the Hebb model, the Sutton-Barto model, and the most recent trace model.
Current knowledge about the activity dependence of the firing threshold, the conditions required for conduction failure, and the similarity of nodes along a single axon will be reviewed. An electronic circuit model for a site of low conduction safety in an axon will be presented. In response to single frequency stimulation the electronic circuit acts as a lowpass filter. I. INTRODUCTION The axon is often modeled as a wire which imposes a fixed delay on a propagating signal. Using this model, neural information processing is performed by synaptically sum m ing weighted contributions of the outputs from other neurons.
This paper looks at two more difficult vocabularies, the alphabetic E-set and a set of polysyllabic words. The E-set is difficult because it contains weak discriminants and polysyllables are difficult because of timing variation. Polysyllabic word recognition is aided by a time pre-alignment technique based on dynamic programming andE-set recognition is improved by focusing attention. Recognition accuracies are better than 98% for both vocabularies when implemented with a single layer perceptron. INTRODUCTION Artificial neural networks perform well on simple pattern recognition tasks.
The neural network model is a discrete time system that can be represented by a weighted and undirected graph. There is a weight attached to each edge of the graph and a threshold value attached to each node (neuron) of the graph. American Institute of Physics 1988 138 Theorder of the network is the number of nodes in the corresponding graph.
Two approaches are described which allow parallel computation of a model's nonlinear functions, parallel modification of a model's weights, and parallel propagation of a model's activation and error. Each approach also allows a model's interconnect structure to be physically dynamic. A Hopfield model is implemented with each approach at six sizes over the same number of CM processors to provide a performance comparison. INTRODUCflON Simulations of neural network models on digital computers perform various computations by applying linear or nonlinear functions, defined in a program, to weighted sums of integer or real numbers retrieved and stored by array reference. The numerical values are model dependent parameters like time averaged spiking frequency (activation), synaptic efficacy (weight), the error in error back propagation models, and computational temperature in thermodynamic models. The interconnect structure of a particular model is implied by indexing relationships between arrays defined in a program. On the Connection Machine (CM), these relationships are expressed in hardware processors interconnected by a 16-dimensional hypercube communication network. Mappings are constructed to defme higher dimensional interconnectivity between processors on top of the fundamental geometry of the communication network.
Using a simple Hebb-type learning rule in conjunction withthe cortical dynamics which emerge from the anatomical and physiological organization ofthe model, the simulations are capable of establishing cortical representations for different input patterns. The basis of these representations lies in the interaction of sparsely distributed, highly divergent/convergent interconnections between modeled neurons. We have shown that different representations can be stored with minimal interference.
Using one extracellular microelectrode to record from several neurons is one approach to studying the response properties of sets of adjacent and therefore likely related neurons. However, to do this, it is necessary to correctly classify the signals generated by these different neurons. This paper considers this problem of classifying the signals in such an extracellular recording, based upon their shapes, and specifically considers the classification of signals in the case when spikes overlap temporally. Introduction How single neurons in a network of neurons interact when processing information is likely to be a fundamental question central to understanding how real neural networks compute. In the mammalian nervous system we know that spatially adjacent neurons are, in general, more likely to interact, as well as receive common inputs.