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Uncertainty quantification in complex systems using approximate solvers

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a novel uncertainty quantification framework for computationally demanding systems characterized by a large vector of non-Gaussian uncertainties. It combines state-of-the-art techniques in advanced Monte Carlo sampling with Bayesian formulations. The key departure from existing works is the use of inexpensive, approximate computational models in a rigorous manner. Such models can readily be derived by coarsening the discretization size in the solution of the governing PDEs, increasing the time step when integration of ODEs is performed, using fewer iterations if a non-linear solver is employed or making use of lower order models. It is shown that even in cases where the inexact models provide very poor approximations of the exact response, statistics of the latter can be quantified accurately with significant reductions in the computational effort. Multiple approximate models can be used and rigorous confidence bounds of the estimates produced are provided at all stages.


An Approximation Ratio for Biclustering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The problem of biclustering consists of the simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a matrix such that each of the submatrices induced by a pair of row and column clusters is as uniform as possible. In this paper we approximate the optimal biclustering by applying one-way clustering algorithms independently on the rows and on the columns of the input matrix. We show that such a solution yields a worst-case approximation ratio of 1+sqrt(2) under L1-norm for 0-1 valued matrices, and of 2 under L2-norm for real valued matrices.


Building an interpretable fuzzy rule base from data using Orthogonal Least Squares Application to a depollution problem

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In many fields where human understanding plays a crucial role, such as bioprocesses, the capacity of extracting knowledge from data is of critical importance. Within this framework, fuzzy learning methods, if properly used, can greatly help human experts. Amongst these methods, the aim of orthogonal transformations, which have been proven to be mathematically robust, is to build rules from a set of training data and to select the most important ones by linear regression or rank revealing techniques. The OLS algorithm is a good representative of those methods. However, it was originally designed so that it only cared about numerical performance. Thus, we propose some modifications of the original method to take interpretability into account. After recalling the original algorithm, this paper presents the changes made to the original method, then discusses some results obtained from benchmark problems. Finally, the algorithm is applied to a real-world fault detection depollution problem.


Analogical Dissimilarity: Definition, Algorithms and Two Experiments in Machine Learning

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

This paper defines the notion of analogical dissimilarity between four objects, with a special focus on objects structured as sequences. Firstly, it studies the case where the four objects have a null analogical dissimilarity, i.e. are in analogical proportion. Secondly, when one of these objects is unknown, it gives algorithms to compute it. Thirdly, it tackles the problem of defining analogical dissimilarity, which is a measure of how far four objects are from being in analogical proportion. In particular, when objects are sequences, it gives a definition and an algorithm based on an optimal alignment of the four sequences. It gives also learning algorithms, i.e. methods to find the triple of objects in a learning sample which has the least analogical dissimilarity with a given object. Two practical experiments are described: the first is a classification problem on benchmarks of binary and nominal data, the second shows how the generation of sequences by solving analogical equations enables a handwritten character recognition system to rapidly be adapted to a new writer.


Compositional Belief Update

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In this paper we explore a class of belief update operators, in which the definition of the operator is compositional with respect to the sentence to be added. The goal is to provide an update operator that is intuitive, in that its definition is based on a recursive decomposition of the update sentence's structure, and that may be reasonably implemented. In addressing update, we first provide a definition phrased in terms of the models of a knowledge base. While this operator satisfies a core group of the benchmark Katsuno-Mendelzon update postulates, not all of the postulates are satisfied. Other Katsuno-Mendelzon postulates can be obtained by suitably restricting the syntactic form of the sentence for update, as we show. In restricting the syntactic form of the sentence for update, we also obtain a hierarchy of update operators with Winslett's standard semantics as the most basic interesting approach captured. We subsequently give an algorithm which captures this approach; in the general case the algorithm is exponential, but with some not-unreasonable assumptions we obtain an algorithm that is linear in the size of the knowledge base. Hence the resulting approach has much better complexity characteristics than other operators in some situations. We also explore other compositional belief change operators: erasure is developed as a dual operator to update; we show that a forget operator is definable in terms of update; and we give a definition of the compositional revision operator. We obtain that compositional revision, under the most natural definition, yields the Satoh revision operator.


Factored Value Iteration Converges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we propose a novel algorithm, factored value iteration (FVI), for the approximate solution of factored Markov decision processes (fMDPs). The traditional approximate value iteration algorithm is modified in two ways. For one, the least-squares projection operator is modified so that it does not increase max-norm, and thus preserves convergence. The other modification is that we uniformly sample polynomially many samples from the (exponentially large) state space. This way, the complexity of our algorithm becomes polynomial in the size of the fMDP description length. We prove that the algorithm is convergent. We also derive an upper bound on the difference between our approximate solution and the optimal one, and also on the error introduced by sampling. We analyze various projection operators with respect to their computation complexity and their convergence when combined with approximate value iteration.


Initial Results on the F-logic to OWL Bi-directional Translation on a Tabled Prolog Engine

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we show our results on the bi-directional data exchange between the F-logic language supported by the Flora2 system and the OWL language. Most of the TBox and ABox axioms are translated preserving the semantics between the two representations, such as: proper inclusion, individual definition, functional properties, while some axioms and restrictions require a change in the semantics, such as: numbered and qualified cardinality restrictions. For the second case, we translate the OWL definite style inference rules into F-logic style constraints. We also describe a set of reasoning examples using the above translation, including the reasoning in Flora2 of a variety of ABox queries.


Comparison between CPBPV, ESC/Java, CBMC, Blast, EUREKA and Why for Bounded Program Verification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report describes experimental results for a set of benchmarks on program verification. It compares the capabilities of CPBVP "Constraint Programming framework for Bounded Program Verification" [4] with the following frameworks: ESC/Java, CBMC, Blast, EUREKA and Why.


Relations among conditional probabilities

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We describe a Groebner basis of relations among conditional probabilities in a discrete probability space, with any set of conditioned-upon events. They may be specialized to the partially-observed random variable case, the purely conditional case, and other special cases. We also investigate the connection to generalized permutohedra and describe a conditional probability simplex.


Verified Null-Move Pruning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this article we review standard null-move pruning and introduce our extended version of it, which we call verified null-move pruning. In verified null-move pruning, whenever the shallow null-move search indicates a fail-high, instead of cutting off the search from the current node, the search is continued with reduced depth. Our experiments with verified null-move pruning show that on average, it constructs a smaller search tree with greater tactical strength in comparison to standard null-move pruning. Moreover, unlike standard null-move pruning, which fails badly in zugzwang positions, verified null-move pruning manages to detect most zugzwangs and in such cases conducts a re-search to obtain the correct result. In addition, verified null-move pruning is very easy to implement, and any standard null-move pruning program can use verified null-move pruning by modifying only a few lines of code.