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"Dave...I can assure you...that it's going to be all right..." -- A definition, case for, and survey of algorithmic assurances in human-autonomy trust relationships

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As technology becomes more advanced, those who design, use and are otherwise affected by it want to know that it will perform correctly, and understand why it does what it does, and how to use it appropriately. In essence they want to be able to trust the systems that are being designed. In this survey we present assurances that are the method by which users can understand how to trust autonomous systems. Trust between humans and autonomy is reviewed, and the implications for the design of assurances are highlighted. A survey of existing research related to assurances is presented. Much of the surveyed research originates from fields such as interpretable, comprehensible, transparent, and explainable machine learning, as well as human-computer interaction, human-robot interaction, and e-commerce. Several key ideas are extracted from this work in order to refine the definition of assurances. The design of assurances is found to be highly dependent not only on the capabilities of the autonomous system, but on the characteristics of the human user, and the appropriate trust-related behaviors. Several directions for future research are identified and discussed.