Schmid, Martin, Moravcik, Matej, Burch, Neil, Kadlec, Rudolf, Davidson, Josh, Waugh, Kevin, Bard, Nolan, Timbers, Finbarr, Lanctot, Marc, Holland, Zach, Davoodi, Elnaz, Christianson, Alden, Bowling, Michael
Games have a long history of serving as a benchmark for progress in artificial intelligence. Recently, approaches using search and learning have shown strong performance across a set of perfect information games, and approaches using game-theoretic reasoning and learning have shown strong performance for specific imperfect information poker variants. We introduce Player of Games, a general-purpose algorithm that unifies previous approaches, combining guided search, self-play learning, and game-theoretic reasoning. Player of Games is the first algorithm to achieve strong empirical performance in large perfect and imperfect information games -- an important step towards truly general algorithms for arbitrary environments. We prove that Player of Games is sound, converging to perfect play as available computation time and approximation capacity increases. Player of Games reaches strong performance in chess and Go, beats the strongest openly available agent in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker (Slumbot), and defeats the state-of-the-art agent in Scotland Yard, an imperfect information game that illustrates the value of guided search, learning, and game-theoretic reasoning.
Deep counterfactual value networks combined with continual resolving provide a way to conduct depth-limited search in imperfect-information games. However, since their introduction in the DeepStack poker AI, deep counterfactual value networks have not seen widespread adoption. In this paper we introduce several improvements to deep counterfactual value networks, as well as counterfactual regret minimization, and analyze the effects of each change. We combined these improvements to create the poker AI Supremus. We show that while a reimplementation of DeepStack loses head-to-head against the strong benchmark agent Slumbot, Supremus successfully beats Slumbot by an extremely large margin and also achieves a lower exploitability than DeepStack against a local best response. Together, these results show that with our key improvements, deep counterfactual value networks can achieve state-of-the-art performance.