Active Learning for Network Traffic Classification: A Technical Survey Artificial Intelligence

Network Traffic Classification (NTC) has become an important component in a wide variety of network management operations, e.g., Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning and security purposes. Machine Learning (ML) algorithms as a common approach for NTC methods can achieve reasonable accuracy and handle encrypted traffic. However, ML-based NTC techniques suffer from the shortage of labeled traffic data which is the case in many real-world applications. This study investigates the applicability of an active form of ML, called Active Learning (AL), which reduces the need for a high number of labeled examples by actively choosing the instances that should be labeled. The study first provides an overview of NTC and its fundamental challenges along with surveying the literature in the field of using ML techniques in NTC. Then, it introduces the concepts of AL, discusses it in the context of NTC, and review the literature in this field. Further, challenges and open issues in the use of AL for NTC are discussed. Additionally, as a technical survey, some experiments are conducted to show the broad applicability of AL in NTC. The simulation results show that AL can achieve high accuracy with a small amount of data.

Extending Isolation Forest for Anomaly Detection in Big Data via K-Means Artificial Intelligence

Industrial Information Technology (IT) infrastructures are often vulnerable to cyberattacks. To ensure security to the computer systems in an industrial environment, it is required to build effective intrusion detection systems to monitor the cyber-physical systems (e.g., computer networks) in the industry for malicious activities. This paper aims to build such intrusion detection systems to protect the computer networks from cyberattacks. More specifically, we propose a novel unsupervised machine learning approach that combines the K-Means algorithm with the Isolation Forest for anomaly detection in industrial big data scenarios. Since our objective is to build the intrusion detection system for the big data scenario in the industrial domain, we utilize the Apache Spark framework to implement our proposed model which was trained in large network traffic data (about 123 million instances of network traffic) stored in Elasticsearch. Moreover, we evaluate our proposed model on the live streaming data and find that our proposed system can be used for real-time anomaly detection in the industrial setup. In addition, we address different challenges that we face while training our model on large datasets and explicitly describe how these issues were resolved. Based on our empirical evaluation in different use-cases for anomaly detection in real-world network traffic data, we observe that our proposed system is effective to detect anomalies in big data scenarios. Finally, we evaluate our proposed model on several academic datasets to compare with other models and find that it provides comparable performance with other state-of-the-art approaches.

Intrusion Detection Systems for IoT: opportunities and challenges offered by Edge Computing Artificial Intelligence

Key components of current cybersecurity methods are the Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) were different techniques and architectures are applied to detect intrusions. IDSs can be based either on cross-checking monitored events with a database of known intrusion experiences, known as signature-based, or on learning the normal behavior of the system and reporting whether some anomalous events occur, named anomaly-based. This work is dedicated to the application to the Internet of Things (IoT) network where edge computing is used to support the IDS implementation. New challenges that arise when deploying an IDS in an edge scenario are identified and remedies are proposed. We focus on anomaly-based IDSs, showing the main techniques that can be leveraged to detect anomalies and we present machine learning techniques and their application in the context of an IDS, describing the expected advantages and disadvantages that a specific technique could cause.

Deep Learning for Anomaly Detection: A Review Machine Learning

Anomaly detection has been an active research area for several decades, with early exploration dating back as far as to 1960s [52]. Due to the increasing demand and applications in broad domains, such as risk management, compliance, security, financial surveillance, health and medical risk, and AI safety, anomaly detection plays increasingly important roles, highlighted in various communities including data mining, machine learning, computer vision and statistics. In recent years, deep learning has shown tremendous capabilities in learning expressive representations of complex data such as high-dimensional data, temporal data, spatial data and graph data, pushing the boundaries of different learning tasks.

Hybrid Model for Anomaly Detection on Call Detail Records by Time Series Forecasting Machine Learning

Mobile network operators store an enormous amount of information like log files that describe various events and users' activities. Analysis of these logs might be used in many critical applications such as detecting cyber-attacks, finding behavioral patterns of users, security incident response, network forensics, etc. In a cellular network Call Detail Records (CDR) is one type of such logs containing metadata of calls and usually includes valuable information about contact such as the phone numbers of originating and receiving subscribers, call duration, the area of activity, type of call (SMS or voice call) and a timestamp. With anomaly detection, it is possible to determine abnormal reduction or increment of network traffic in an area or for a particular person. This paper's primary goal is to study subscribers' behavior in a cellular network, mainly predicting the number of calls in a region and detecting anomalies in the network traffic. In this paper, a new hybrid method is proposed based on various anomaly detection methods such as GARCH, K-means, and Neural Network to determine the anomalous data. Moreover, we have discussed the possible causes of such anomalies.

Anomalous Instance Detection in Deep Learning: A Survey Machine Learning

Deep Learning (DL) is vulnerable to out-of-distribution and adversarial examples resulting in incorrect outputs. To make DL more robust, several posthoc anomaly detection techniques to detect (and discard) these anomalous samples have been proposed in the recent past. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection for DL based applications. We provide a taxonomy for existing techniques based on their underlying assumptions and adopted approaches. We discuss various techniques in each of the categories and provide the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. Our goal in this survey is to provide an easier yet better understanding of the techniques belonging to different categories in which research has been done on this topic. Finally, we highlight the unsolved research challenges while applying anomaly detection techniques in DL systems and present some high-impact future research directions.

An Anomaly Contribution Explainer for Cyber-Security Applications Machine Learning

--In this paper we introduce Anomaly Contribution Explainer or ACE, a tool to explain security anomaly detection models in terms of the model features through a regression framework, and its variant, ACE-KL, which highlights the important anomaly contributors. ACE and ACE-KL provide insights in diagnosing which attributes significantly contribute to an anomaly by building a specialized linear model to locally approximate the anomaly score that a black-box model generates. We conducted experiments with these anomaly detection models to detect security anomalies on both synthetic data and real data. In particular, we evaluate performance on three public data sets: CERT insider threat, netflow logs, and Android malware. The experimental results are encouraging: our methods consistently identify the correct contributing feature in the synthetic data where ground truth is available; similarly, for real data sets, our methods point a security analyst in the direction of the underlying causes of an anomaly, including in one case leading to the discovery of previously overlooked network scanning activity. We have made our source code publicly available. Cyber-security is a key concern for both private and public organizations, given the high cost of security compromises and attacks; malicious cyber-activity cost the U.S. economy between $57 billion and $109 billion in 2016 [1]. As a result, spending on security research and development, and security products and services to detect and combat cyber-attacks has been increasing [2]. Organizations produce large amounts of network, host and application data that can be used to gain insights into cyber-security threats, misconfigurations, and network operations. While security domain experts can manually sift through some amount of data to spot attacks and understand them, it is virtually impossible to do so at scale, considering that even a medium sized enterprise can produce terabytes of data in a few hours.

Deep Anomaly Detection with Deviation Networks Machine Learning

Although deep learning has been applied to successfully address many data mining problems, relatively limited work has been done on deep learning for anomaly detection. Existing deep anomaly detection methods, which focus on learning new feature representations to enable downstream anomaly detection methods, perform indirect optimization of anomaly scores, leading to data-inefficient learning and suboptimal anomaly scoring. Also, they are typically designed as unsupervised learning due to the lack of large-scale labeled anomaly data. As a result, they are difficult to leverage prior knowledge (e.g., a few labeled anomalies) when such information is available as in many real-world anomaly detection applications. This paper introduces a novel anomaly detection framework and its instantiation to address these problems. Instead of representation learning, our method fulfills an end-to-end learning of anomaly scores by a neural deviation learning, in which we leverage a few (e.g., multiple to dozens) labeled anomalies and a prior probability to enforce statistically significant deviations of the anomaly scores of anomalies from that of normal data objects in the upper tail. Extensive results show that our method can be trained substantially more data-efficiently and achieves significantly better anomaly scoring than state-of-the-art competing methods.

Visual Analytics of Anomalous User Behaviors: A Survey Machine Learning

The increasing accessibility of data provides substantial opportunities for understanding user behaviors. Unearthing anomalies in user behaviors is of particular importance as it helps signal harmful incidents such as network intrusions, terrorist activities, and financial frauds. Many visual analytics methods have been proposed to help understand user behavior-related data in various application domains. In this work, we survey the state of art in visual analytics of anomalous user behaviors and classify them into four categories including social interaction, travel, network communication, and transaction. We further examine the research works in each category in terms of data types, anomaly detection techniques, and visualization techniques, and interaction methods. Finally, we discuss the findings and potential research directions.

Should I Raise The Red Flag? A comprehensive survey of anomaly scoring methods toward mitigating false alarms Machine Learning

A general Intrusion Detection System (IDS) fundamentally acts based on an Anomaly Detection System (ADS) or a combination of anomaly detection and signature-based methods, gathering and analyzing observations and reporting possible suspicious cases to a system administrator or the other users for further investigation. One of the notorious challenges which even the state-of-the-art ADS and IDS have not overcome is the possibility of a very high false alarms rate. Especially in very large and complex system settings, the amount of low-level alarms easily overwhelms administrators and increases their tendency to ignore alerts. We can group the existing false alarm mitigation strategies into two main families: The first group covers the methods directly customized and applied toward higher quality anomaly scoring in ADS. The second group includes approaches utilized in the related contexts as a filtering method toward decreasing the possibility of false alarm rates. Given the lack of a comprehensive study regarding possible ways to mitigate the false alarm rates, in this paper, we review the existing techniques for false alarm mitigation in ADS and present the pros and cons of each technique. We also study a few promising techniques applied in the signature-based IDS and other related contexts like commercial Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) tools, which are applicable and promising in the ADS context. Finally, we conclude with some directions for future research.