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Time Series to Images: Monitoring the Condition of Industrial Assets with Deep Learning Image Processing Algorithms

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The ability to detect anomalies in time series is considered as highly valuable within plenty of application domains. The sequential nature of time series objects is responsible for an additional feature complexity, ultimately requiring specialized approaches for solving the task. Essential characteristics of time series, laying outside the time domain, are often difficult to capture with state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, when no transformations on the time series have been applied. Inspired by the success of deep learning methods in computer vision, several studies have proposed to transform time-series into image-like representations, leading to very promising results. However, most of the previous studies implementing time-series to image encodings have focused on the supervised classification. The application to unsupervised anomaly detection tasks has been limited. The paper has the following contributions: First, we evaluate the application of six time-series to image encodings to DL algorithms: Gramian Angular Field, Markov Transition Field, Recurrence Plot, Grey Scale Encoding, Spectrogram and Scalogram. Second, we propose modifications of the original encoding definitions, to make them more robust to the variability in large datasets. And third, we provide a comprehensive comparison between using the raw time series directly and the different encodings, with and without the proposed improvements. The comparison is performed on a dataset collected and released by Airbus, containing highly complex vibration measurements from real helicopters flight tests. The different encodings provide competitive results for anomaly detection.


Anomaly Detection

#artificialintelligence

An Anomaly is by definition something that is outside the norm or what is expected. For data this can mean rare individual outliers or distinct clusters. Anomaly detection is an important capability with broad applicability in many domains such as medical diagnostics or in detection of intrusions, fraud, or false information. All three categories of model training are used for anomalous data; supervised, semi-supervised, and unsupervised. Typically the first go-to methods are statistical and classical machine learning techniques.


Challenges in Vessel Behavior and Anomaly Detection: From Classical Machine Learning to Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The global expansion of maritime activities and the development of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) have driven the advances in maritime monitoring systems in the last decade. Monitoring vessel behavior is fundamental to safeguard maritime operations, protecting other vessels sailing the ocean and the marine fauna and flora. Given the enormous volume of vessel data continually being generated, real-time analysis of vessel behaviors is only possible because of decision support systems provided with event and anomaly detection methods. However, current works on vessel event detection are ad-hoc methods able to handle only a single or a few predefined types of vessel behavior. Most of the existing approaches do not learn from the data and require the definition of queries and rules for describing each behavior. In this paper, we discuss challenges and opportunities in classical machine learning and deep learning for vessel event and anomaly detection. We hope to motivate the research of novel methods and tools, since addressing these challenges is an essential step towards actual intelligent maritime monitoring systems.


Anomaly Detection in Univariate Time-series: A Survey on the State-of-the-Art

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Anomaly detection for time-series data has been an important research field for a long time. Seminal work on anomaly detection methods has been focussing on statistical approaches. In recent years an increasing number of machine learning algorithms have been developed to detect anomalies on time-series. Subsequently, researchers tried to improve these techniques using (deep) neural networks. In the light of the increasing number of anomaly detection methods, the body of research lacks a broad comparative evaluation of statistical, machine learning and deep learning methods. This paper studies 20 univariate anomaly detection methods from the all three categories. The evaluation is conducted on publicly available datasets, which serve as benchmarks for time-series anomaly detection. By analyzing the accuracy of each method as well as the computation time of the algorithms, we provide a thorough insight about the performance of these anomaly detection approaches, alongside some general notion of which method is suited for a certain type of data.


CRATOS: Cognition of Reliable Algorithm for Time-series Optimal Solution

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Anomaly detection of time series plays an important role in reliability systems engineering. However, in practical application, there is no precisely defined boundary between normal and anomalous behaviors in different application scenarios. Therefore, different anomaly detection algorithms and processes ought to be adopted for time series in different situation. Although such strategy improve the accuracy of anomaly detection, it takes a lot of time for engineers to configure millions of different algorithms to different series, which greatly increases the development and maintenance cost of anomaly detection processes. In this paper, we propose CRATOS which is a self-adapt algorithms that extract features for time series, and then cluster series with similar features into one group. For each group we utilize evolution algorithm to search the best anomaly detection methods and processes. Our methods can significantly reduce the cost of development and maintenance. According to our experiments, our clustering methods achieves the state-of-art results. Compared with the accuracy (93.4%) of the anomaly detection algorithms that engineers configure for different time series manually, our algorithms is not far behind in detecting accuracy (85.1%).


DROCC: Deep Robust One-Class Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Classical approaches for one-class problems such as one-class SVM (Scholkopf et al., 1999) and isolation forest (Liu et al., 2008) require careful feature engineering when applied to structured domains like images. To alleviate this concern, state-of-the-art methods like DeepSVDD (Ruff et al., 2018) consider the natural alternative of minimizing a classical one-class loss applied to the learned final layer representations. However, such an approach suffers from the fundamental drawback that a representation that simply collapses all the inputs minimizes the one class loss; heuristics to mitigate collapsed representations provide limited benefits. In this work, we propose Deep Robust One Class Classification (DROCC) method that is robust to such a collapse by training the network to distinguish the training points from their perturbations, generated adversarially. DROCC is motivated by the assumption that the interesting class lies on a locally linear low dimensional manifold. Empirical evaluation demonstrates DROCC's effectiveness on two different one-class problem settings and on a range of real-world datasets across different domains - images(CIFAR and ImageNet), audio and timeseries, offering up to 20% increase in accuracy over the state-of-the-art in anomaly detection.


RobustTAD: Robust Time Series Anomaly Detection via Decomposition and Convolutional Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The monitoring and management of numerous and diverse time series data at Alibaba Group calls for an effective and scalable time series anomaly detection service. In this paper, we propose RobustTAD, a Robust Time series Anomaly Detection framework by integrating robust seasonal-trend decomposition and convolutional neural network for time series data. The seasonal-trend decomposition can effectively handle complicated patterns in time series, and meanwhile significantly simplifies the architecture of the neural network, which is an encoder-decoder architecture with skip connections. This architecture can effectively capture the multi-scale information from time series, which is very useful in anomaly detection. Due to the limited labeled data in time series anomaly detection, we systematically investigate data augmentation methods in both time and frequency domains. We also introduce label-based weight and value-based weight in the loss function by utilizing the unbalanced nature of the time series anomaly detection problem. Compared with the widely used forecasting-based anomaly detection algorithms, decomposition-based algorithms, traditional statistical algorithms, as well as recent neural network based algorithms, RobustTAD performs significantly better on public benchmark datasets. It is deployed as a public online service and widely adopted in different business scenarios at Alibaba Group.


A flexible outlier detector based on a topology given by graph communities

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Outlier, or anomaly, detection is essential for optimal performance of machine learning methods and statistical predictive models. It is not just a technical step in a data cleaning process but a key topic in many fields such as fraudulent document detection, in medical applications and assisted diagnosis systems or detecting security threats. In contrast to population-based methods, neighborhood based local approaches are simple flexible methods that have the potential to perform well in small sample size unbalanced problems. However, a main concern of local approaches is the impact that the computation of each sample neighborhood has on the method performance. Most approaches use a distance in the feature space to define a single neighborhood that requires careful selection of several parameters. This work presents a local approach based on a local measure of the heterogeneity of sample labels in the feature space considered as a topological manifold. Topology is computed using the communities of a weighted graph codifying mutual nearest neighbors in the feature space. This way, we provide with a set of multiple neighborhoods able to describe the structure of complex spaces without parameter fine tuning. The extensive experiments on real-world data sets show that our approach overall outperforms, both, local and global strategies in multi and single view settings.


Correlation-aware Deep Generative Model for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Unsupervised anomaly detection aims to identify anomalous samples from highly complex and unstructured data, which is pervasive in both fundamental research and industrial applications. However, most existing methods neglect the complex correlation among data samples, which is important for capturing normal patterns from which the abnormal ones deviate. In this paper, we propose a method of Correlation aware unsupervised Anomaly detection via Deep Gaussian Mixture Model (CADGMM), which captures the complex correlation among data points for high-quality low-dimensional representation learning. More specifically, the relations among data samples are correlated firstly in forms of a graph structure, in which, the node denotes the sample and the edge denotes the correlation between two samples from the feature space. Then, a dual-encoder that consists of a graph encoder and a feature encoder, is employed to encode both the feature and correlation information of samples into the low-dimensional latent space jointly, followed by a decoder for data reconstruction. Finally, a separate estimation network as a Gaussian Mixture Model is utilized to estimate the density of the learned latent vector, and the anomalies can be detected by measuring the energy of the samples. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.


RePAD: Real-time Proactive Anomaly Detection for Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

During the past decade, many anomaly detection approaches have been introduced in different fields such as network monitoring, fraud detection, and intrusion detection. However, they require understanding of data pattern and often need a long off-line period to build a model or network for the target data. Providing real-time and proactive anomaly detection for streaming time series without human intervention and domain knowledge is highly valuable since it greatly reduces human effort and enables appropriate countermeasures to be undertaken before a disastrous damage, failure, or other harmful event occurs. However, this issue has not been well studied yet. To address it, this paper proposes RePAD, which is a Real-time Proactive Anomaly Detection algorithm for streaming time series based on Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). RePAD utilizes short-term historic data points to predict and determine whether or not the upcoming data point is a sign that an anomaly is likely to happen in the near future. By dynamically adjusting the detection threshold over time, RePAD is able to tolerate minor pattern change in time series and detect anomalies either proactively or on time. Experiments based on two time series datasets collected from the Numenta Anomaly Benchmark demonstrate that RePAD is able to proactively detect anomalies and provide early warnings in real time without human intervention and domain knowledge.