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Anomaly Detection: Overviews


Two-Stage Deep Anomaly Detection with Heterogeneous Time Series Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a data-driven anomaly detection framework using a manufacturing dataset collected from a factory assembly line. Given heterogeneous time series data consisting of operation cycle signals and sensor signals, we aim at discovering abnormal events. Motivated by our empirical findings that conventional single-stage benchmark approaches may not exhibit satisfactory performance under our challenging circumstances, we propose a two-stage deep anomaly detection (TDAD) framework in which two different unsupervised learning models are adopted depending on types of signals. In Stage I, we select anomaly candidates by using a model trained by operation cycle signals; in Stage II, we finally detect abnormal events out of the candidates by using another model, which is suitable for taking advantage of temporal continuity, trained by sensor signals. A distinguishable feature of our framework is that operation cycle signals are exploited first to find likely anomalous points, whereas sensor signals are leveraged to filter out unlikely anomalous points afterward. Our experiments comprehensively demonstrate the superiority over single-stage benchmark approaches, the model-agnostic property, and the robustness to difficult situations.


Functional Anomaly Detection: a Benchmark Study

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The increasing automation in many areas of the Industry expressly demands to design efficient machine-learning solutions for the detection of abnormal events. With the ubiquitous deployment of sensors monitoring nearly continuously the health of complex infrastructures, anomaly detection can now rely on measurements sampled at a very high frequency, providing a very rich representation of the phenomenon under surveillance. In order to exploit fully the information thus collected, the observations cannot be treated as multivariate data anymore and a functional analysis approach is required. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the performance of recent techniques for anomaly detection in the functional setup on real datasets. After an overview of the state-of-the-art and a visual-descriptive study, a variety of anomaly detection methods are compared. While taxonomies of abnormalities (e.g. shape, location) in the functional setup are documented in the literature, assigning a specific type to the identified anomalies appears to be a challenging task. Thus, strengths and weaknesses of the existing approaches are benchmarked in view of these highlighted types in a simulation study. Anomaly detection methods are next evaluated on two datasets, related to the monitoring of helicopters in flight and to the spectrometry of construction materials namely. The benchmark analysis is concluded by recommendation guidance for practitioners.


Applications of Signature Methods to Market Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

While these instances are called outliers (anomalies), the normal instances are called inliers. Anomaly detection is a fundamental research problem that has been investigated by researchers from diverse research fields and application areas. Anomaly detection can be made manually by searching through whole data clouds to diagnose the problem, but clearly this is a long and labourintensive process. Anomaly detection often appears in the context of uncertainty, i.e. absence, principal or not, of knowledge on the data generating process. Hence, over time, a plethora of anomaly detection techniques ranging from simple statistical techniques to complex machine learning algorithms has been developed for certain application areas such as fraud detection in financial transactions (West and Bhattacharya (2016)), fault detection in production (Miljković (2011)), intrusion detection in a computer network (Sabahi and Movaghar (2008)), etc. Some of the well known statistical methods such as z-score, Tukey method (Interquartile Range) or Gaussian Mixture models can be useful for the initial screening of outliers. Although these statistical or econometric anomaly detection methods have been well rooted in the literature (we refer the reader to Chandola et al. (2009) for an extensive review) dating back to Edgeworth (1887), many of them have failed to provide sufficient performance and accuracy in the last decade. This is mainly in view of big data collected from various sources such as financial transactions, health records, and surveillance logs etc. Nowadays high-volume, high-velocity, and high-variety data sets demand cost-effective novel data analytics for decision-making and to infer useful insights


ECOD: Unsupervised Outlier Detection Using Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functions

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Outlier detection refers to the identification of data points that deviate from a general data distribution. Existing unsupervised approaches often suffer from high computational cost, complex hyperparameter tuning, and limited interpretability, especially when working with large, high-dimensional datasets. To address these issues, we present a simple yet effective algorithm called ECOD (Empirical-Cumulative-distribution-based Outlier Detection), which is inspired by the fact that outliers are often the "rare events" that appear in the tails of a distribution. In a nutshell, ECOD first estimates the underlying distribution of the input data in a nonparametric fashion by computing the empirical cumulative distribution per dimension of the data. ECOD then uses these empirical distributions to estimate tail probabilities per dimension for each data point. Finally, ECOD computes an outlier score of each data point by aggregating estimated tail probabilities across dimensions. Our contributions are as follows: (1) we propose a novel outlier detection method called ECOD, which is both parameter-free and easy to interpret; (2) we perform extensive experiments on 30 benchmark datasets, where we find that ECOD outperforms 11 state-of-the-art baselines in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and scalability; and (3) we release an easy-to-use and scalable (with distributed support) Python implementation for accessibility and reproducibility.


Deep Graph-level Anomaly Detection by Glocal Knowledge Distillation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph-level anomaly detection (GAD) describes the problem of detecting graphs that are abnormal in their structure and/or the features of their nodes, as compared to other graphs. One of the challenges in GAD is to devise graph representations that enable the detection of both locally- and globally-anomalous graphs, i.e., graphs that are abnormal in their fine-grained (node-level) or holistic (graph-level) properties, respectively. To tackle this challenge we introduce a novel deep anomaly detection approach for GAD that learns rich global and local normal pattern information by joint random distillation of graph and node representations. The random distillation is achieved by training one GNN to predict another GNN with randomly initialized network weights. Extensive experiments on 16 real-world graph datasets from diverse domains show that our model significantly outperforms seven state-of-the-art models. Code and datasets are available at https://git.io/GLocalKD.


Outlier Detection using AI: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An outlier is an event or observation that is defined as an unusual activity, intrusion, or a suspicious data point that lies at an irregular distance from a population. The definition of an outlier event, however, is subjective and depends on the application and the domain (Energy, Health, Wireless Network, etc.). It is important to detect outlier events as carefully as possible to avoid infrastructure failures because anomalous events can cause minor to severe damage to infrastructure. For instance, an attack on a cyber-physical system such as a microgrid may initiate voltage or frequency instability, thereby damaging a smart inverter which involves very expensive repairing. Unusual activities in microgrids can be mechanical faults, behavior changes in the system, human or instrument errors or a malicious attack. Accordingly, and due to its variability, Outlier Detection (OD) is an ever-growing research field. In this chapter, we discuss the progress of OD methods using AI techniques. For that, the fundamental concepts of each OD model are introduced via multiple categories. Broad range of OD methods are categorized into six major categories: Statistical-based, Distance-based, Density-based, Clustering-based, Learning-based, and Ensemble methods. For every category, we discuss recent state-of-the-art approaches, their application areas, and performances. After that, a brief discussion regarding the advantages, disadvantages, and challenges of each technique is provided with recommendations on future research directions. This survey aims to guide the reader to better understand recent progress of OD methods for the assurance of AI.


UN-AVOIDS: Unsupervised and Nonparametric Approach for Visualizing Outliers and Invariant Detection Scoring

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The visualization and detection of anomalies (outliers) are of crucial importance to many fields, particularly cybersecurity. Several approaches have been proposed in these fields, yet to the best of our knowledge, none of them has fulfilled both objectives, simultaneously or cooperatively, in one coherent framework. The visualization methods of these approaches were introduced for explaining the output of a detection algorithm, not for data exploration that facilitates a standalone visual detection. This is our point of departure: UN-AVOIDS, an unsupervised and nonparametric approach for both visualization (a human process) and detection (an algorithmic process) of outliers, that assigns invariant anomalous scores (normalized to $[0,1]$), rather than hard binary-decision. The main aspect of novelty of UN-AVOIDS is that it transforms data into a new space, which is introduced in this paper as neighborhood cumulative density function (NCDF), in which both visualization and detection are carried out. In this space, outliers are remarkably visually distinguishable, and therefore the anomaly scores assigned by the detection algorithm achieved a high area under the ROC curve (AUC). We assessed UN-AVOIDS on both simulated and two recently published cybersecurity datasets, and compared it to three of the most successful anomaly detection methods: LOF, IF, and FABOD. In terms of AUC, UN-AVOIDS was almost an overall winner. The article concludes by providing a preview of new theoretical and practical avenues for UN-AVOIDS. Among them is designing a visualization aided anomaly detection (VAAD), a type of software that aids analysts by providing UN-AVOIDS' detection algorithm (running in a back engine), NCDF visualization space (rendered to plots), along with other conventional methods of visualization in the original feature space, all of which are linked in one interactive environment.


Generalized Out-of-Distribution Detection: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is critical to ensuring the reliability and safety of machine learning systems. For instance, in autonomous driving, we would like the driving system to issue an alert and hand over the control to humans when it detects unusual scenes or objects that it has never seen before and cannot make a safe decision. This problem first emerged in 2017 and since then has received increasing attention from the research community, leading to a plethora of methods developed, ranging from classification-based to density-based to distance-based ones. Meanwhile, several other problems are closely related to OOD detection in terms of motivation and methodology. These include anomaly detection (AD), novelty detection (ND), open set recognition (OSR), and outlier detection (OD). Despite having different definitions and problem settings, these problems often confuse readers and practitioners, and as a result, some existing studies misuse terms. In this survey, we first present a generic framework called generalized OOD detection, which encompasses the five aforementioned problems, i.e., AD, ND, OSR, OOD detection, and OD. Under our framework, these five problems can be seen as special cases or sub-tasks, and are easier to distinguish. Then, we conduct a thorough review of each of the five areas by summarizing their recent technical developments. We conclude this survey with open challenges and potential research directions.


Anomaly Detection for High-Dimensional Data Using Large Deviations Principle

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Most current anomaly detection methods suffer from the curse of dimensionality when dealing with high-dimensional data. We propose an anomaly detection algorithm that can scale to high-dimensional data using concepts from the theory of large deviations. The proposed Large Deviations Anomaly Detection (LAD) algorithm is shown to outperform state of art anomaly detection methods on a variety of large and high-dimensional benchmark data sets. Exploiting the ability of the algorithm to scale to high-dimensional data, we propose an online anomaly detection method to identify anomalies in a collection of multivariate time series. We demonstrate the applicability of the online algorithm in identifying counties in the United States with anomalous trends in terms of COVID-19 related cases and deaths. Several of the identified anomalous counties correlate with counties with documented poor response to the COVID pandemic.


Autoencoder-based Semantic Novelty Detection: Towards Dependable AI-based Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Many autonomous systems, such as driverless taxis, perform safety critical functions. Autonomous systems employ artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, specifically for the environment perception. Engineers cannot completely test or formally verify AI-based autonomous systems. The accuracy of AI-based systems depends on the quality of training data. Thus, novelty detection - identifying data that differ in some respect from the data used for training - becomes a safety measure for system development and operation. In this paper, we propose a new architecture for autoencoder-based semantic novelty detection with two innovations: architectural guidelines for a semantic autoencoder topology and a semantic error calculation as novelty criteria. We demonstrate that such a semantic novelty detection outperforms autoencoder-based novelty detection approaches known from literature by minimizing false negatives.