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IM-META: Influence Maximization Using Node Metadata in Networks With Unknown Topology

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In real-world applications of influence maximization (IM), the network structure is often unknown. In this case, we may identify the most influential seed nodes by exploring only a part of the underlying network given a small budget for node queries. Motivated by the fact that collecting node metadata is more cost-effective than investigating the relationship between nodes via queried nodes, we develop IM-META, an end-to-end solution to IM in networks with unknown topology by retrieving information from both queries and node metadata. However, using such metadata to aid the IM process is not without risk due to the noisy nature of metadata and uncertainties in connectivity inference. To tackle these challenges, we formulate an IM problem that aims to find two sets, i.e., seed nodes and queried nodes. We propose an effective method that iteratively performs three steps: 1) we learn the relationship between collected metadata and edges via a Siamese neural network model, 2) we select a number of inferred influential edges to construct a reinforced graph used for discovering an optimal seed set, and 3) we identify the next node to query by maximizing the inferred influence spread using a topology-aware ranking strategy. By querying only 5% of nodes, IM-META reaches 93% of the upper bound performance.


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#artificialintelligence

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Fair Representation Learning for Heterogeneous Information Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently, much attention has been paid to the societal impact of AI, especially concerns regarding its fairness. A growing body of research has identified unfair AI systems and proposed methods to debias them, yet many challenges remain. Representation learning for Heterogeneous Information Networks (HINs), a fundamental building block used in complex network mining, has socially consequential applications such as automated career counseling, but there have been few attempts to ensure that it will not encode or amplify harmful biases, e.g. sexism in the job market. To address this gap, in this paper we propose a comprehensive set of de-biasing methods for fair HINs representation learning, including sampling-based, projection-based, and graph neural networks (GNNs)-based techniques. We systematically study the behavior of these algorithms, especially their capability in balancing the trade-off between fairness and prediction accuracy. We evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in an automated career counseling application where we mitigate gender bias in career recommendation. Based on the evaluation results on two datasets, we identify the most effective fair HINs representation learning techniques under different conditions.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.


Blockchain-Based Federated Learning in Mobile Edge Networks with Application in Internet of Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The rapid increase of the data scale in Internet of Vehicles (IoV) system paradigm, hews out new possibilities in boosting the service quality for the emerging applications through data sharing. Nevertheless, privacy concerns are major bottlenecks for data providers to share private data in traditional IoV networks. To this end, federated learning (FL) as an emerging learning paradigm, where data providers only send local model updates trained on their local raw data rather than upload any raw data, has been recently proposed to build a privacy-preserving data sharing models. Unfortunately, by analyzing on the differences of uploaded local model updates from data providers, private information can still be divulged, and performance of the system cannot be guaranteed when partial federated nodes executes malicious behavior. Additionally, traditional cloud-based FL poses challenges to the communication overhead with the rapid increase of terminal equipment in IoV system. All these issues inspire us to propose an autonomous blockchain empowered privacy-preserving FL framework in this paper, where the mobile edge computing (MEC) technology was naturally integrated in IoV system.


Socially Responsible AI Algorithms: Issues, Purposes, and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the current era, people and society have grown increasingly reliant on Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. AI has the potential to drive us towards a future in which all of humanity flourishes. It also comes with substantial risks for oppression and calamity. Discussions about whether we should (re)trust AI have repeatedly emerged in recent years and in many quarters, including industry, academia, health care, services, and so on. Technologists and AI researchers have a responsibility to develop trustworthy AI systems. They have responded with great efforts of designing more responsible AI algorithms. However, existing technical solutions are narrow in scope and have been primarily directed towards algorithms for scoring or classification tasks, with an emphasis on fairness and unwanted bias. To build long-lasting trust between AI and human beings, we argue that the key is to think beyond algorithmic fairness and connect major aspects of AI that potentially cause AI's indifferent behavior. In this survey, we provide a systematic framework of Socially Responsible AI Algorithms that aims to examine the subjects of AI indifference and the need for socially responsible AI algorithms, define the objectives, and introduce the means by which we may achieve these objectives. We further discuss how to leverage this framework to improve societal well-being through protection, information, and prevention/mitigation.


Benchmark and Survey of Automated Machine Learning Frameworks

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Machine learning (ML) has become a vital part in many aspects of our daily life. However, building well performing machine learning applications requires highly specialized data scientists and domain experts. Automated machine learning (AutoML) aims to reduce the demand for data scientists by enabling domain experts to build machine learning applications automatically without extensive knowledge of statistics and machine learning. This paper is a combination of a survey on current AutoML methods and a benchmark of popular AutoML frameworks on real data sets. Driven by the selected frameworks for evaluation, we summarize and review important AutoML techniques and methods concerning every step in building an ML pipeline. The selected AutoML frameworks are evaluated on 137 data sets from established AutoML benchmark suites.


AutonoML: Towards an Integrated Framework for Autonomous Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Over the last decade, the long-running endeavour to automate high-level processes in machine learning (ML) has risen to mainstream prominence, stimulated by advances in optimisation techniques and their impact on selecting ML models/algorithms. Central to this drive is the appeal of engineering a computational system that both discovers and deploys high-performance solutions to arbitrary ML problems with minimal human interaction. Beyond this, an even loftier goal is the pursuit of autonomy, which describes the capability of the system to independently adjust an ML solution over a lifetime of changing contexts. However, these ambitions are unlikely to be achieved in a robust manner without the broader synthesis of various mechanisms and theoretical frameworks, which, at the present time, remain scattered across numerous research threads. Accordingly, this review seeks to motivate a more expansive perspective on what constitutes an automated/autonomous ML system, alongside consideration of how best to consolidate those elements. In doing so, we survey developments in the following research areas: hyperparameter optimisation, multi-component models, neural architecture search, automated feature engineering, meta-learning, multi-level ensembling, dynamic adaptation, multi-objective evaluation, resource constraints, flexible user involvement, and the principles of generalisation. We also develop a conceptual framework throughout the review, augmented by each topic, to illustrate one possible way of fusing high-level mechanisms into an autonomous ML system. Ultimately, we conclude that the notion of architectural integration deserves more discussion, without which the field of automated ML risks stifling both its technical advantages and general uptake.


Developing Future Human-Centered Smart Cities: Critical Analysis of Smart City Security, Interpretability, and Ethical Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As we make tremendous advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence technosciences, there is a renewed understanding in the AI community that we must ensure that humans being are at the center of our deliberations so that we don't end in technology-induced dystopias. As strongly argued by Green in his book Smart Enough City, the incorporation of technology in city environs does not automatically translate into prosperity, wellbeing, urban livability, or social justice. There is a great need to deliberate on the future of the cities worth living and designing. There are philosophical and ethical questions involved along with various challenges that relate to the security, safety, and interpretability of AI algorithms that will form the technological bedrock of future cities. Several research institutes on human centered AI have been established at top international universities. Globally there are calls for technology to be made more humane and human-compatible. For example, Stuart Russell has a book called Human Compatible AI. The Center for Humane Technology advocates for regulators and technology companies to avoid business models and product features that contribute to social problems such as extremism, polarization, misinformation, and Internet addiction. In this paper, we analyze and explore key challenges including security, robustness, interpretability, and ethical challenges to a successful deployment of AI or ML in human-centric applications, with a particular emphasis on the convergence of these challenges. We provide a detailed review of existing literature on these key challenges and analyze how one of these challenges may lead to others or help in solving other challenges. The paper also advises on the current limitations, pitfalls, and future directions of research in these domains, and how it can fill the current gaps and lead to better solutions.


A Survey on Data Pricing: from Economics to Data Science

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

How can we assess the value of data objectively, systematically and quantitatively? Pricing data, or information goods in general, has been studied and practiced in dispersed areas and principles, such as economics, marketing, electronic commerce, data management, data mining and machine learning. In this article, we present a unified, interdisciplinary and comprehensive overview of this important direction. We examine various motivations behind data pricing, understand the economics of data pricing and review the development and evolution of pricing models according to a series of fundamental principles. We discuss both digital products and data products. We also consider a series of challenges and directions for future work.