Collaborating Authors

Face Recognition: Overviews

Visual Methods for Sign Language Recognition: A Modality-Based Review Artificial Intelligence

Sign language visual recognition from continuous multi-modal streams is still one of the most challenging fields. Recent advances in human actions recognition are exploiting the ascension of GPU-based learning from massive data, and are getting closer to human-like performances. They are then prone to creating interactive services for the deaf and hearing-impaired communities. A population that is expected to grow considerably in the years to come. This paper aims at reviewing the human actions recognition literature with the sign-language visual understanding as a scope. The methods analyzed will be mainly organized according to the different types of unimodal inputs exploited, their relative multi-modal combinations and pipeline steps. In each section, we will detail and compare the related datasets, approaches then distinguish the still open contribution paths suitable for the creation of sign language related services. Special attention will be paid to the approaches and commercial solutions handling facial expressions and continuous signing.

The Use of AI for Thermal Emotion Recognition: A Review of Problems and Limitations in Standard Design and Data Artificial Intelligence

With the increased attention on thermal imagery for Covid-19 screening, the public sector may believe there are new opportunities to exploit thermal as a modality for computer vision and AI. Thermal physiology research has been ongoing since the late nineties. This research lies at the intersections of medicine, psychology, machine learning, optics, and affective computing. We will review the known factors of thermal vs. RGB imaging for facial emotion recognition. But we also propose that thermal imagery may provide a semi-anonymous modality for computer vision, over RGB, which has been plagued by misuse in facial recognition. However, the transition to adopting thermal imagery as a source for any human-centered AI task is not easy and relies on the availability of high fidelity data sources across multiple demographics and thorough validation. This paper takes the reader on a short review of machine learning in thermal FER and the limitations of collecting and developing thermal FER data for AI training. Our motivation is to provide an introductory overview into recent advances for thermal FER and stimulate conversation about the limitations in current datasets.

A practical introduction: Developing a facial recognition application


Are you interested in learning about Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning? If so, this FREE webinar is for you. Dr Temitope Sam-Odusina (Computer Vision and Artificial Intelligence Engineer) and Dr Abbas Egbeyemi (Software Engineer) will give an overview of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning via real-life examples and applications and a live demonstration on how to develop a facial recognition application. The webinar will take place on Saturday 5th September 2020 at 6:00 PM (West Africa Time) via Zoom (Zoom link will be provided after registration) and will be hosted by Dr Adeayo Sotayo. Any programming experience will be beneficial.

Why you should learn Computer Vision and how you can get started


In today's world, Computer Vision technologies are everywhere. They are embedded within many of the tools and applications that we use on a daily basis. However, we often pay little attention to those underlaying Computer Vision technologies because they tend to run in the background. As a result, only a small fraction of those outside the tech industries know about the importance of those technologies. Therefore, the goal of this article is to provide an overview of Computer Vision to those with little to no knowledge about the field. I attempt to achieve this goal by answering three questions: What is Computer Vision?, Why should you learn Computer Vision? and How you can get started?

On the Applicability of ML Fairness Notions Artificial Intelligence

ML-based predictive systems are increasingly used to support decisions with a critical impact on individuals' lives such as college admission, job hiring, child custody, criminal risk assessment, etc. As a result, fairness emerged as an important requirement to guarantee that predictive systems do not discriminate against specific individuals or entire sub-populations, in particular, minorities. Given the inherent subjectivity of viewing the concept of fairness, several notions of fairness have been introduced in the literature. This paper is a survey of fairness notions that, unlike other surveys in the literature, addresses the question of "which notion of fairness is most suited to a given real-world scenario and why?". Our attempt to answer this question consists in (1) identifying the set of fairness-related characteristics of the real-world scenario at hand, (2) analyzing the behavior of each fairness notion, and then (3) fitting these two elements to recommend the most suitable fairness notion in every specific setup. The results are summarized in a decision diagram that can be used by practitioners and policy makers to navigate the relatively large catalogue of fairness notions.

Image Captioning using Facial Expression and Attention

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Benefiting from advances in machine vision and natural language processing techniques, current image captioning systems are able to generate detailed visual descriptions. For the most part, these descriptions represent an objective characterisation of the image, although some models do incorporate subjective aspects related to the observer's view of the image, such as sentiment; current models, however, usually do not consider the emotional content of images during the caption generation process. This paper addresses this issue by proposing novel image captioning models which use facial expression features to generate image captions. The models generate image captions using long short-term memory networks applying facial features in addition to other visual features at different time steps. We compare a comprehensive collection of image captioning models with and without facial features using all standard evaluation metrics. The evaluation metrics indicate that applying facial features with an attention mechanism achieves the best performance, showing more expressive and more correlated image captions, on an image caption dataset extracted from the standard Flickr 30K dataset, consisting of around 11K images containing faces. An analysis of the generated captions finds that, perhaps unexpectedly, the improvement in caption quality appears to come not from the addition of adjectives linked to emotional aspects of the images, but from more variety in the actions described in the captions.

Differential 3D Facial Recognition: Adding 3D to Your State-of-the-Art 2D Method Machine Learning

Active illumination is a prominent complement to enhance 2D face recognition and make it more robust, e.g., to spoofing attacks and low-light conditions. In the present work we show that it is possible to adopt active illumination to enhance state-of-the-art 2D face recognition approaches with 3D features, while bypassing the complicated task of 3D reconstruction. The key idea is to project over the test face a high spatial frequency pattern, which allows us to simultaneously recover real 3D information plus a standard 2D facial image. Therefore, state-of-the-art 2D face recognition solution can be transparently applied, while from the high frequency component of the input image, complementary 3D facial features are extracted. Experimental results on ND-2006 dataset show that the proposed ideas can significantly boost face recognition performance and dramatically improve the robustness to spoofing attacks.

Face Recognition Technology Past, Present, and Future


Earlier facial recognition technology was considered as an idea of science fiction. But in the past decade, facial recognition technology has not only become real -- but it's widespread. Today, people can easily read articles and news stories about facial recognition everywhere. Here is the history of facial recognition technology and some ideas about its bright future. Facial recognition technology along with AI (Artificial Intelligence) and Deep Learning (DL) technology are benefiting several industries.

Lessons from Archives: Strategies for Collecting Sociocultural Data in Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence

A growing body of work shows that many problems in fairness, accountability, transparency, and ethics in machine learning systems are rooted in decisions surrounding the data collection and annotation process. In spite of its fundamental nature however, data collection remains an overlooked part of the machine learning (ML) pipeline. In this paper, we argue that a new specialization should be formed within ML that is focused on methodologies for data collection and annotation: efforts that require institutional frameworks and procedures. Specifically for sociocultural data, parallels can be drawn from archives and libraries. Archives are the longest standing communal effort to gather human information and archive scholars have already developed the language and procedures to address and discuss many challenges pertaining to data collection such as consent, power, inclusivity, transparency, and ethics & privacy. We discuss these five key approaches in document collection practices in archives that can inform data collection in sociocultural ML. By showing data collection practices from another field, we encourage ML research to be more cognizant and systematic in data collection and draw from interdisciplinary expertise.

Datamorphic Testing: A Methodology for Testing AI Applications Artificial Intelligence

With the rapid growth of the applications of machine learning (ML) and other artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, adequate testing has become a necessity to ensure their quality. This paper identifies the characteristics of AI applications that distinguish them from traditional software, and analyses the main difficulties in applying existing testing methods. Based on this analysis, we propose a new method called datamorphic testing and illustrate the method with an example of testing face recognition applications. We also report an experiment with four real industrial application systems of face recognition to validate the proposed approach.