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Face Recognition: Overviews


Conversational Agents: Theory and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this chapter, we provide a review of conversational agents (CAs), discussing chatbots, intended for casual conversation with a user, as well as task-oriented agents that generally engage in discussions intended to reach one or several specific goals, often (but not always) within a specific domain. We also consider the concept of embodied conversational agents, briefly reviewing aspects such as character animation and speech processing. The many different approaches for representing dialogue in CAs are discussed in some detail, along with methods for evaluating such agents, emphasizing the important topics of accountability and interpretability. A brief historical overview is given, followed by an extensive overview of various applications, especially in the fields of health and education. We end the chapter by discussing benefits and potential risks regarding the societal impact of current and future CA technology.


Mental Stress Detection using Data from Wearable and Non-wearable Sensors: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.


Artificial Intelligence for Suicide Assessment using Audiovisual Cues: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Death by suicide is the seventh of the leading death cause worldwide. The recent advancement in Artificial Intelligence (AI), specifically AI application in image and voice processing, has created a promising opportunity to revolutionize suicide risk assessment. Subsequently, we have witnessed fast-growing literature of researches that applies AI to extract audiovisual non-verbal cues for mental illness assessment. However, the majority of the recent works focus on depression, despite the evident difference between depression signs and suicidal behavior non-verbal cues. In this paper, we review the recent works that study suicide ideation and suicide behavior detection through audiovisual feature analysis, mainly suicidal voice/speech acoustic features analysis and suicidal visual cues.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Self-Supervised Robustifying Guidance for Monocular 3D Face Reconstruction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Despite the recent developments in 3D Face Reconstruction from occluded and noisy face images, the performance is still unsatisfactory. One of the main challenges is to handle moderate to heavy occlusions in the face images. In addition, the noise in the face images inhibits the correct capture of facial attributes, thus needing to be reliably addressed. Moreover, most existing methods rely on additional dependencies, posing numerous constraints over the training procedure. Therefore, we propose a Self-Supervised RObustifying GUidancE (ROGUE) framework to obtain robustness against occlusions and noise in the face images. The proposed network contains 1) the Guidance Pipeline to obtain the 3D face coefficients for the clean faces, and 2) the Robustification Pipeline to acquire the consistency between the estimated coefficients for occluded or noisy images and the clean counterpart. The proposed image- and feature-level loss functions aid the ROGUE learning process without posing additional dependencies. On the three variations of the test dataset of CelebA: rational occlusions, delusional occlusions, and noisy face images, our method outperforms the current state-of-the-art method by large margins (e.g., for the shape-based 3D vertex errors, a reduction from 0.146 to 0.048 for rational occlusions, from 0.292 to 0.061 for delusional occlusions and from 0.269 to 0.053 for the noise in the face images), demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


Detect Faces Efficiently: A Survey and Evaluations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Face detection is to search all the possible regions for faces in images and locate the faces if there are any. Many applications including face recognition, facial expression recognition, face tracking and head-pose estimation assume that both the location and the size of faces are known in the image. In recent decades, researchers have created many typical and efficient face detectors from the Viola-Jones face detector to current CNN-based ones. However, with the tremendous increase in images and videos with variations in face scale, appearance, expression, occlusion and pose, traditional face detectors are challenged to detect various "in the wild" faces. The emergence of deep learning techniques brought remarkable breakthroughs to face detection along with the price of a considerable increase in computation. This paper introduces representative deep learning-based methods and presents a deep and thorough analysis in terms of accuracy and efficiency. We further compare and discuss the popular and challenging datasets and their evaluation metrics. A comprehensive comparison of several successful deep learning-based face detectors is conducted to uncover their efficiency using two metrics: FLOPs and latency. The paper can guide to choose appropriate face detectors for different applications and also to develop more efficient and accurate detectors.


Comparing Human and Machine Bias in Face Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Much recent research has uncovered and discussed serious concerns of bias in facial analysis technologies, finding performance disparities between groups of people based on perceived gender, skin type, lighting condition, etc. These audits are immensely important and successful at measuring algorithmic bias but have two major challenges: the audits (1) use facial recognition datasets which lack quality metadata, like LFW and CelebA, and (2) do not compare their observed algorithmic bias to the biases of their human alternatives. In this paper, we release improvements to the LFW and CelebA datasets which will enable future researchers to obtain measurements of algorithmic bias that are not tainted by major flaws in the dataset (e.g. identical images appearing in both the gallery and test set). We also use these new data to develop a series of challenging facial identification and verification questions that we administered to various algorithms and a large, balanced sample of human reviewers. We find that both computer models and human survey participants perform significantly better at the verification task, generally obtain lower accuracy rates on dark-skinned or female subjects for both tasks, and obtain higher accuracy rates when their demographics match that of the question. Computer models are observed to achieve a higher level of accuracy than the survey participants on both tasks and exhibit bias to similar degrees as the human survey participants.


How Can AI Recognize Pain and Express Empathy

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sensory and emotional experiences such as pain and empathy are relevant to mental and physical health. The current drive for automated pain recognition is motivated by a growing number of healthcare requirements and demands for social interaction make it increasingly essential. Despite being a trending area, they have not been explored in great detail. Over the past decades, behavioral science and neuroscience have uncovered mechanisms that explain the manifestations of pain. Recently, also artificial intelligence research has allowed empathic machine learning methods to be approachable. Generally, the purpose of this paper is to review the current developments for computational pain recognition and artificial empathy implementation. Our discussion covers the following topics: How can AI recognize pain from unimodality and multimodality? Is it necessary for AI to be empathic? How can we create an AI agent with proactive and reactive empathy? This article explores the challenges and opportunities of real-world multimodal pain recognition from a psychological, neuroscientific, and artificial intelligence perspective. Finally, we identify possible future implementations of artificial empathy and analyze how humans might benefit from an AI agent equipped with empathy.


Trustworthy AI: A Computational Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the past few decades, artificial intelligence (AI) technology has experienced swift developments, changing everyone's daily life and profoundly altering the course of human society. The intention of developing AI is to benefit humans, by reducing human labor, bringing everyday convenience to human lives, and promoting social good. However, recent research and AI applications show that AI can cause unintentional harm to humans, such as making unreliable decisions in safety-critical scenarios or undermining fairness by inadvertently discriminating against one group. Thus, trustworthy AI has attracted immense attention recently, which requires careful consideration to avoid the adverse effects that AI may bring to humans, so that humans can fully trust and live in harmony with AI technologies. Recent years have witnessed a tremendous amount of research on trustworthy AI. In this survey, we present a comprehensive survey of trustworthy AI from a computational perspective, to help readers understand the latest technologies for achieving trustworthy AI. Trustworthy AI is a large and complex area, involving various dimensions. In this work, we focus on six of the most crucial dimensions in achieving trustworthy AI: (i) Safety & Robustness, (ii) Non-discrimination & Fairness, (iii) Explainability, (iv) Privacy, (v) Accountability & Auditability, and (vi) Environmental Well-Being. For each dimension, we review the recent related technologies according to a taxonomy and summarize their applications in real-world systems. We also discuss the accordant and conflicting interactions among different dimensions and discuss potential aspects for trustworthy AI to investigate in the future.


MultiBench: Multiscale Benchmarks for Multimodal Representation Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning multimodal representations involves integrating information from multiple heterogeneous sources of data. It is a challenging yet crucial area with numerous real-world applications in multimedia, affective computing, robotics, finance, human-computer interaction, and healthcare. Unfortunately, multimodal research has seen limited resources to study (1) generalization across domains and modalities, (2) complexity during training and inference, and (3) robustness to noisy and missing modalities. In order to accelerate progress towards understudied modalities and tasks while ensuring real-world robustness, we release MultiBench, a systematic and unified large-scale benchmark spanning 15 datasets, 10 modalities, 20 prediction tasks, and 6 research areas. MultiBench provides an automated end-to-end machine learning pipeline that simplifies and standardizes data loading, experimental setup, and model evaluation. To enable holistic evaluation, MultiBench offers a comprehensive methodology to assess (1) generalization, (2) time and space complexity, and (3) modality robustness. MultiBench introduces impactful challenges for future research, including scalability to large-scale multimodal datasets and robustness to realistic imperfections. To accompany this benchmark, we also provide a standardized implementation of 20 core approaches in multimodal learning. Simply applying methods proposed in different research areas can improve the state-of-the-art performance on 9/15 datasets. Therefore, MultiBench presents a milestone in unifying disjoint efforts in multimodal research and paves the way towards a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of multimodal models, all the while ensuring ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility. MultiBench, our standardized code, and leaderboards are publicly available, will be regularly updated, and welcomes inputs from the community.