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Sequential Attacks on Kalman Filter-based Forward Collision Warning Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Kalman Filter (KF) is widely used in various domains to perform sequential learning or variable estimation. In the context of autonomous vehicles, KF constitutes the core component of many Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW). It tracks the states (distance, velocity etc.) of relevant traffic objects based on sensor measurements. The tracking output of KF is often fed into downstream logic to produce alerts, which will then be used by human drivers to make driving decisions in near-collision scenarios. In this paper, we study adversarial attacks on KF as part of the more complex machine-human hybrid system of Forward Collision Warning. Our attack goal is to negatively affect human braking decisions by causing KF to output incorrect state estimations that lead to false or delayed alerts. We accomplish this by sequentially manipulating measure ments fed into the KF, and propose a novel Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach to compute the optimal manipulation. Via experiments conducted in a simulated driving environment, we show that the attacker is able to successfully change FCW alert signals through planned manipulation over measurements prior to the desired target time. These results demonstrate that our attack can stealthily mislead a distracted human driver and cause vehicle collisions.


Understanding Bird's-Eye View Semantic HD-Maps Using an Onboard Monocular Camera

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Autonomous navigation requires scene understanding of the action-space to move or anticipate events. For planner agents moving on the ground plane, such as autonomous vehicles, this translates to scene understanding in the bird's-eye view. However, the onboard cameras of autonomous cars are customarily mounted horizontally for a better view of the surrounding. In this work, we study scene understanding in the form of online estimation of semantic bird's-eye-view HD-maps using the video input from a single onboard camera. We study three key aspects of this task, image-level understanding, BEV level understanding, and the aggregation of temporal information. Based on these three pillars we propose a novel architecture that combines these three aspects. In our extensive experiments, we demonstrate that the considered aspects are complementary to each other for HD-map understanding. Furthermore, the proposed architecture significantly surpasses the current state-of-the-art.


3D-NVS: A 3D Supervision Approach for Next View Selection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a classification based approach for the next best view selection and show how we can plausibly obtain a supervisory signal for this task. The proposed approach is end-to-end trainable and aims to get the best possible 3D reconstruction quality with a pair of passively acquired 2D views. The proposed model consists of two stages: a classifier and a reconstructor network trained jointly via the indirect 3D supervision from ground truth voxels. While testing, the proposed method assumes no prior knowledge of the underlying 3D shape for selecting the next best view. We demonstrate the proposed method's effectiveness via detailed experiments on synthetic and real images and show how it provides improved reconstruction quality than the existing state of the art 3D reconstruction and the next best view prediction techniques.


RegFlow: Probabilistic Flow-based Regression for Future Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Predicting future states or actions of a given system remains a fundamental, yet unsolved challenge of intelligence, especially in the scope of complex and non-deterministic scenarios, such as modeling behavior of humans. Existing approaches provide results under strong assumptions concerning unimodality of future states, or, at best, assuming specific probability distributions that often poorly fit to real-life conditions. In this work we introduce a robust and flexible probabilistic framework that allows to model future predictions with virtually no constrains regarding the modality or underlying probability distribution. To achieve this goal, we leverage a hypernetwork architecture and train a continuous normalizing flow model. The resulting method dubbed RegFlow achieves state-of-the-art results on several benchmark datasets, outperforming competing approaches by a significant margin.


Computer Vision: A Key Concept to Solve Many Image Data Problems

#artificialintelligence

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon. Computer Vision is evolving from the emerging stage and the result is incredibly useful in various applications. It is in our mobile phone cameras which are able to recognize faces. It is available in self-driving cars to recognize traffic signals, signs, and pedestrians. Also, it is in industrial robots to monitor problems and navigating around co-workers.


Attentional Separation-and-Aggregation Network for Self-supervised Depth-Pose Learning in Dynamic Scenes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning depth and ego-motion from unlabeled videos via self-supervision from epipolar projection can improve the robustness and accuracy of the 3D perception and localization of vision-based robots. However, the rigid projection computed by ego-motion cannot represent all scene points, such as points on moving objects, leading to false guidance in these regions. To address this problem, we propose an Attentional Separation-and-Aggregation Network (ASANet), which can learn to distinguish and extract the scene's static and dynamic characteristics via the attention mechanism. We further propose a novel MotionNet with an ASANet as the encoder, followed by two separate decoders, to estimate the camera's ego-motion and the scene's dynamic motion field. Then, we introduce an auto-selecting approach to detect the moving objects for dynamic-aware learning automatically. Empirical experiments demonstrate that our method can achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the KITTI benchmark.


Empowering Things with Intelligence: A Survey of the Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Artificial Intelligence of Things

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, billions of sensors and devices collect and process data from the environment, transmit them to cloud centers, and receive feedback via the internet for connectivity and perception. However, transmitting massive amounts of heterogeneous data, perceiving complex environments from these data, and then making smart decisions in a timely manner are difficult. Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, is now a proven success in various areas including computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing. AI introduced into the IoT heralds the era of artificial intelligence of things (AIoT). This paper presents a comprehensive survey on AIoT to show how AI can empower the IoT to make it faster, smarter, greener, and safer. Specifically, we briefly present the AIoT architecture in the context of cloud computing, fog computing, and edge computing. Then, we present progress in AI research for IoT from four perspectives: perceiving, learning, reasoning, and behaving. Next, we summarize some promising applications of AIoT that are likely to profoundly reshape our world. Finally, we highlight the challenges facing AIoT and some potential research opportunities.


Technologies for the Future: A Lidar Overview

#artificialintelligence

Point clouds can be captured by an ever-increasing number of means to understand the surrounding reality and detect critical developments. Diverse applications of 3D laser scanning or'Lidar', which is a technology on a sky-rocketing path to be used for mapping and surveying, are changing the way we collect and refine topographic data. Which technologies and processes are building the capability for high-density 3D data? This article outlines the latest industry developments. National topographic databases store data refined from field measurements, imagery and laser scanning data at certain specifications and purposes, but lack the ability to adapt to ever-changing needs and situational awareness. 'Data on demand' is a recognized megatrend in the geospatial industry.


AI on the Bog: Monitoring and Evaluating Cranberry Crop Risk

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine vision for precision agriculture has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. The goal of this paper is to develop an end-to-end cranberry health monitoring system to enable and support real time cranberry over-heating assessment to facilitate informed decisions that may sustain the economic viability of the farm. Toward this goal, we propose two main deep learning-based modules for: 1) cranberry fruit segmentation to delineate the exact fruit regions in the cranberry field image that are exposed to sun, 2) prediction of cloud coverage conditions and sun irradiance to estimate the inner temperature of exposed cranberries. We develop drone-based field data and ground-based sky data collection systems to collect video imagery at multiple time points for use in crop health analysis. Extensive evaluation on the data set shows that it is possible to predict exposed fruit's inner temperature with high accuracy (0.02% MAPE). The sun irradiance prediction error was found to be 8.41-20.36% MAPE in the 5-20 minutes time horizon. With 62.54% mIoU for segmentation and 13.46 MAE for counting accuracies in exposed fruit identification, this system is capable of giving informed feedback to growers to take precautionary action (e.g. irrigation) in identified crop field regions with higher risk of sunburn in the near future. Though this novel system is applied for cranberry health monitoring, it represents a pioneering step forward for efficient farming and is useful in precision agriculture beyond the problem of cranberry overheating.


Computer Vision In Python! Face Detection & Image Processing

#artificialintelligence

Master Python By Implementing Face Recognition & Image Processing In Python Created by Emenwa Global Students also bought Deep Learning and Computer Vision A-Z: OpenCV, SSD & GANs Python for Computer Vision with OpenCV and Deep Learning Deep Learning: Advanced Computer Vision (GANs, SSD, More!) Autonomous Cars: Deep Learning and Computer Vision in PythonPreview this course Udemy GET COUPON CODE Computer vision is an interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made to gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to automate tasks that the human visual system can do. Computer vision is concerned with the automatic extraction, analysis and understanding of useful information from a single image or a sequence of images. It involves the development of a theoretical and algorithmic basis to achieve automatic visual understanding. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences, views from multiple cameras, or multi-dimensional data from a medical scanner.