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Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


When Creators Meet the Metaverse: A Survey on Computational Arts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The metaverse, enormous virtual-physical cyberspace, has brought unprecedented opportunities for artists to blend every corner of our physical surroundings with digital creativity. This article conducts a comprehensive survey on computational arts, in which seven critical topics are relevant to the metaverse, describing novel artworks in blended virtual-physical realities. The topics first cover the building elements for the metaverse, e.g., virtual scenes and characters, auditory, textual elements. Next, several remarkable types of novel creations in the expanded horizons of metaverse cyberspace have been reflected, such as immersive arts, robotic arts, and other user-centric approaches fuelling contemporary creative outputs. Finally, we propose several research agendas: democratising computational arts, digital privacy, and safety for metaverse artists, ownership recognition for digital artworks, technological challenges, and so on. The survey also serves as introductory material for artists and metaverse technologists to begin creations in the realm of surrealistic cyberspace.


Edge-Native Intelligence for 6G Communications Driven by Federated Learning: A Survey of Trends and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The unprecedented surge of data volume in wireless networks empowered with artificial intelligence (AI) opens up new horizons for providing ubiquitous data-driven intelligent services. Traditional cloud-centric machine learning (ML)-based services are implemented by collecting datasets and training models centrally. However, this conventional training technique encompasses two challenges: (i) high communication and energy cost due to increased data communication, (ii) threatened data privacy by allowing untrusted parties to utilise this information. Recently, in light of these limitations, a new emerging technique, coined as federated learning (FL), arose to bring ML to the edge of wireless networks. FL can extract the benefits of data silos by training a global model in a distributed manner, orchestrated by the FL server. FL exploits both decentralised datasets and computing resources of participating clients to develop a generalised ML model without compromising data privacy. In this article, we introduce a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals and enabling technologies of FL. Moreover, an extensive study is presented detailing various applications of FL in wireless networks and highlighting their challenges and limitations. The efficacy of FL is further explored with emerging prospective beyond fifth generation (B5G) and sixth generation (6G) communication systems. The purpose of this survey is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of FL applications in key wireless technologies that will serve as a foundation to establish a firm understanding of the topic. Lastly, we offer a road forward for future research directions.


Ego4D: Around the World in 3,000 Hours of Egocentric Video

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Ego4D, a massive-scale egocentric video dataset and benchmark suite. It offers 3,025 hours of daily-life activity video spanning hundreds of scenarios (household, outdoor, workplace, leisure, etc.) captured by 855 unique camera wearers from 74 worldwide locations and 9 different countries. The approach to collection is designed to uphold rigorous privacy and ethics standards with consenting participants and robust de-identification procedures where relevant. Ego4D dramatically expands the volume of diverse egocentric video footage publicly available to the research community. Portions of the video are accompanied by audio, 3D meshes of the environment, eye gaze, stereo, and/or synchronized videos from multiple egocentric cameras at the same event. Furthermore, we present a host of new benchmark challenges centered around understanding the first-person visual experience in the past (querying an episodic memory), present (analyzing hand-object manipulation, audio-visual conversation, and social interactions), and future (forecasting activities). By publicly sharing this massive annotated dataset and benchmark suite, we aim to push the frontier of first-person perception. Project page: https://ego4d-data.org/


Privacy experts aren't thrilled by Amazon's rolling surveillance robot

Mashable

Maybe don't put an autonomous, internet-connected, mobile video camera inside your home. That's the advice of security experts responding to Amazon's new roving surveillance robot, dubbed Astro. While pitched as a plucky new addition to the household that customers can think of as "part of their family," the $1,499.99 As envisioned by Amazon, Astros will move "autonomously" around customers' homes to act as security cameras, and can assist with "[looking] out for loved ones" possibly via a remote dial-in feature called Drop In, or Live View. This sends up major red flags for Matthew Guariglia, a policy analyst with the Electronic Frontier Foundation.


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

#artificialintelligence

What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.


Europe and AI: Leading, Lagging Behind, or Carving Its Own Way?

#artificialintelligence

For its AI ecosystem to thrive, Europe needs to find a way to protect its research base, encourage governments to be early adopters, foster its startup ecosystem, expand international links, and develop AI technologies as well as leverage their use efficiently.


Imposing Regulation on Advanced Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This book discusses the necessity and perhaps urgency for the regulation of algorithms on which new technologies rely; technologies that have the potential to re-shape human societies. From commerce and farming to medical care and education, it is difficult to find any aspect of our lives that will not be affected by these emerging technologies. At the same time, artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, cognitive computing, blockchain, virtual reality and augmented reality, belong to the fields most likely to affect law and, in particular, administrative law. The book examines universally applicable patterns in administrative decisions and judicial rulings. First, similarities and divergence in behavior among the different cases are identified by analyzing parameters ranging from geographical location and administrative decisions to judicial reasoning and legal basis. As it turns out, in several of the cases presented, sources of general law, such as competition or labor law, are invoked as a legal basis, due to the lack of current specialized legislation. This book also investigates the role and significance of national and indeed supranational regulatory bodies for advanced algorithms and considers ENISA, an EU agency that focuses on network and information security, as an interesting candidate for a European regulator of advanced algorithms. Lastly, it discusses the involvement of representative institutions in algorithmic regulation.


The 84 biggest flops, fails, and dead dreams of the decade in tech

#artificialintelligence

The world never changes quite the way you expect. But at The Verge, we've had a front-row seat while technology has permeated every aspect of our lives over the past decade. Some of the resulting moments -- and gadgets -- arguably defined the decade and the world we live in now. But others we ate up with popcorn in hand, marveling at just how incredibly hard they flopped. This is the decade we learned that crowdfunded gadgets can be utter disasters, even if they don't outright steal your hard-earned cash. It's the decade of wearables, tablets, drones and burning batteries, and of ridiculous valuations for companies that were really good at hiding how little they actually had to offer. Here are 84 things that died hard, often hilariously, to bring us where we are today. Everyone was confused by Google's Nexus Q when it debuted in 2012, including The Verge -- which is probably why the bowling ball of a media streamer crashed and burned before it even came to market.


Why we need an AI-resilient society

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is considered as a key technology. It has a huge impact on our society. Besides many positive effects, there are also some negative effects or threats. Some of these threats to society are well-known, e.g., weapons or killer robots. But there are also threats that are ignored. These unknown-knowns or blind spots affect privacy, and facilitate manipulation and mistaken identities. We cannot trust data, audio, video, and identities any more. Democracies are able to cope with known threats, the known-knowns. Transforming unknown-knowns to known-knowns is one important cornerstone of resilient societies. An AI-resilient society is able to transform threats caused by new AI tecchnologies such as generative adversarial networks. Resilience can be seen as a positive adaptation of these threats. We propose three strategies how this adaptation can be achieved: awareness, agreements, and red flags. This article accompanies the TEDx talk "Why we urgently need an AI-resilient society", see https://youtu.be/f6c2ngp7rqY.