Today's cloud was made possible by virtualization technology, which creates a software-based representation of hardware equipment. Virtual machines, such as those popularized by VMWare and the hypervisor technology that manages VM execution, make it possible to run different software on the same machine. This concept is now expanding beyond the cloud to the physical world through the use of software that controls autonomous robots. I call this software-defined X: any physical task (X), from cleaning the floor at an airport terminal to delivering an item from one end of a warehouse to the other, can now be controlled through software. This is really taking "digital transformation" to its logical conclusion.