"Fuzzy Logic is basically a multivalued logic that allows intermediate values to be defined between conventional evaluations like yes/no, true/false, black/white, etc. Notions like rather warm or pretty cold can be formulated mathematically and processed by computers."
– Peter Bauer, Stephan Nouak, and Roman Winkler. A Brief Course in Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Control. Available from ESRU [Energy Systems Research Unit], Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde. 1996.
Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed-decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and they are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of essential data, standard models have shown low accuracy for long-term prediction. Although the literature includes several attempts to address this issue, the essential generalization and robustness abilities of existing models needs to be improved. This paper presents a comparative analysis of machine learning and soft computing models to predict the COVID-19 outbreak as an alternative to SIR and SEIR models.
My friend Robert John, professor of computer science at the University of Nottingham, who has died of liver cancer aged 64, pioneered the use of "type-2 fuzzy sets" in computational intelligence, to establish ways of reasoning algorithmically about linguistic concepts that involve uncertainty – something humans are good at, but computers are not. In the 1990s, while Rob (as he was known to family, though called Bob by work colleagues) was working at De Montfort University, he became involved in research into solving a community transport scheduling problem using fuzzy logic. Working from the foundations laid by Prof Lotfi Zadeh, Rob, through his PhD in 2000 and subsequent work with Prof Jerry Mendel and others, developed the mathematical techniques to use type-2 fuzzy sets. Two papers on type-2 and interval type-2 that he wrote with Mendel are among the most frequently cited and influential in the world on the topic. Rob was a founder member in 1995 of the Centre for Computational Intelligence at De Montfort and led its growth through the 2000s, established his reputation in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' conferences and in journals on fuzzy logic, and was promoted over time to deputy dean.
Here, we propose an unsupervised fuzzy rule-based dimensionality reduction method primarily for data visualization. It considers the following important issues relevant to dimensionality reduction-based data visualization: (i) preservation of neighborhood relationships, (ii) handling data on a non-linear manifold, (iii) the capability of predicting projections for new test data points, (iv) interpretability of the system, and (v) the ability to reject test points if required. For this, we use a first-order Takagi-Sugeno type model. We generate rule antecedents using clusters in the input data. In this context, we also propose a new variant of the Geodesic c-means clustering algorithm. We estimate the rule parameters by minimizing an error function that preserves the inter-point geodesic distances (distances over the manifold) as Euclidean distances on the projected space. We apply the proposed method on three synthetic and three real-world data sets and visually compare the results with four other standard data visualization methods. The obtained results show that the proposed method behaves desirably and performs better than or comparable to the methods compared with. The proposed method is found to be robust to the initial conditions. The predictability of the proposed method for test points is validated by experiments. We also assess the ability of our method to reject output points when it should. Then, we extend this concept to provide a general framework for learning an unsupervised fuzzy model for data projection with different objective functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manifold learning using unsupervised fuzzy modeling.
Satirical news detection is an important yet challenging task to prevent spread of misinformation. Many feature based and end-to-end neural nets based satirical news detection systems have been proposed and delivered promising results. Existing approaches explore comprehensive word features from satirical news articles, but lack semantic metrics using word vectors for tweet form satirical news. Moreover, the vagueness of satire and news parody determines that a news tweet can hardly be classified with a binary decision, that is, satirical or legitimate. To address these issues, we collect satirical and legitimate news tweets, and propose a semantic feature based approach. Features are extracted by exploring inconsistencies in phrases, entities, and between main and relative clauses. We apply game-theoretic rough set model to detect satirical news, in which probabilistic thresholds are derived by game equilibrium and repetition learning mechanism. Experimental results on the collected dataset show the robustness and improvement of the proposed approach compared with Pawlak rough set model and SVM.
The process of information fusion needs to deal with a large number of uncertain information with multi-source, heterogeneity, inaccuracy, unreliability, and incompleteness. In practical engineering applications, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in multi-source information fusion owing to its effectiveness in data fusion. Information sources have an important impact on multi-source information fusion in an environment of complex, unstable, uncertain, and incomplete characteristics. To address multi-source information fusion problem, this paper considers the situation of uncertain information modeling from the closed world to the open world assumption and studies the generation of basic probability assignment (BPA) with incomplete information. In this paper, a new method is proposed to generate generalized basic probability assignment (GBPA) based on the triangular fuzzy number model under the open world assumption. The proposed method can not only be used in different complex environments simply and flexibly, but also have less information loss in information processing. Finally, a series of comprehensive experiments basing on the UCI data sets are used to verify the rationality and superiority of the proposed method.
Generating music with emotion similar to that of an input video is a very relevant issue nowadays. Video content creators and automatic movie directors benefit from maintaining their viewers engaged, which can be facilitated by producing novel material eliciting stronger emotions in them. Moreover, there's currently a demand for more empathetic computers to aid humans in applications such as augmenting the perception ability of visually and/or hearing impaired people. Current approaches overlook the video's emotional characteristics in the music generation step, only consider static images instead of videos, are unable to generate novel music, and require a high level of human effort and skills. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid deep neural network that uses an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to predict a video's emotion from its visual features and a deep Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network to generate its corresponding audio signals with similar emotional inkling. The former is able to appropriately model emotions due to its fuzzy properties, and the latter is able to model data with dynamic time properties well due to the availability of the previous hidden state information. The novelty of our proposed method lies in the extraction of visual emotional features in order to transform them into audio signals with corresponding emotional aspects for users. Quantitative experiments show low mean absolute errors of 0.217 and 0.255 in the Lindsey and DEAP datasets respectively, and similar global features in the spectrograms. This indicates that our model is able to appropriately perform domain transformation between visual and audio features. Based on experimental results, our model can effectively generate audio that matches the scene eliciting a similar emotion from the viewer in both datasets, and music generated by our model is also chosen more often.
This research work deals with Natural Language Processing (NLP) and extraction of essential information in an explicit form. The most common among the information management strategies is Document Retrieval (DR) and Information Filtering. DR systems may work as combine harvesters, which bring back useful material from the vast fields of raw material. With large amount of potentially useful information in hand, an Information Extraction (IE) system can then transform the raw material by refining and reducing it to a germ of original text. A Document Retrieval system collects the relevant documents carrying the required information, from the repository of texts. An IE system then transforms them into information that is more readily digested and analyzed. It isolates relevant text fragments, extracts relevant information from the fragments, and then arranges together the targeted information in a coherent framework. The thesis presents a new approach for Word Sense Disambiguation using thesaurus. The illustrative examples supports the effectiveness of this approach for speedy and effective disambiguation. A Document Retrieval method, based on Fuzzy Logic has been described and its application is illustrated. A question-answering system describes the operation of information extraction from the retrieved text documents. The process of information extraction for answering a query is considerably simplified by using a Structured Description Language (SDL) which is based on cardinals of queries in the form of who, what, when, where and why. The thesis concludes with the presentation of a novel strategy based on Dempster-Shafer theory of evidential reasoning, for document retrieval and information extraction. This strategy permits relaxation of many limitations, which are inherent in Bayesian probabilistic approach.
Purpose: In this study, the recently emerged advances in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) are investigated and employed, for achieving the automatic and non-invasive diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Methods: A Computer-Aided Diagnostic model for the acceptable and non-invasive prediction of CAD using the State Space Advanced FCM (AFCM) approach is proposed. Also, a rule-based mechanism is incorporated, to further increase the knowledge of the system and the interpretability of the decision mechanism. The proposed method is tested utilizing a CAD dataset from the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine of the University of Patras. More specifically, two architectures of AFCMs are designed, and different parameter testing is performed. Furthermore, the proposed AFCMs, which are based on the new equations proposed recently, are compared with the traditional FCM approach. Results: The experiments highlight the effectiveness of the AFCM approach and the new equations over the traditional approach, which obtained an accuracy of 78.21%, achieving an increase of seven percent (+7%) on the classification task, and obtaining 85.47% accuracy. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that the AFCM approach in developing Fuzzy Cognitive Maps outperforms the conventional approach, while it constitutes a reliable method for the diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease. Conclusions and future research related to recent pandemic of coronavirus are provided.
Recently, various relations and criteria have been presented to establish a proper relationship between control systems and control the Global Positioning System (GPS)-intelligent buoy system. Given the importance of controlling the position of buoys and the construction of intelligent systems, in this paper, dynamic system modeling is applied to position marine buoys through the improved neural network with a backstepping technique. This study aims at developing a novel controller based on an adaptive fuzzy neural network to optimally track the dynamically positioned vehicle on the water with unavailable velocities and unidentified control parameters. In order to model the network with the proposed technique, uncertainties and the unwanted disturbances are studied in the neural network. The presented study aims at developing a neural controlling which applies the vectorial back-stepping technique to the surface ships, which have been dynamically positioned with undetermined disturbances and ambivalences. Moreover, the objective function is to minimize the output error for the neural network (NN) based on the closed-loop system. The most important feature of the proposed model for the positioning buoys is its independence from comparative knowledge or information on the dynamics and the unwanted disturbances of ships. The numerical and obtained consequences demonstrate that the control system can adjust the routes and the position of the buoys to the desired objective with relatively few position errors.
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and strokes produce immense health and economic burdens globally. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common type of cardiovascular disease. Coronary Angiography, which is an invasive treatment, is also the standard procedure for diagnosing CAD. In this work, we illustrate a Medical Decision Support System for the prediction of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) utilizing Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs). FCMs are a promising modeling methodology, based on human knowledge, capable of dealing with ambiguity and uncertainty, and learning how to adapt to the unknown or changing environment. The newly proposed MDSS is developed using the basic notions of Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, with some adjustments to improve the results. The proposed model, tested on a labelled CAD dataset of 303 patients, obtains an accuracy of 78.2% outmatching several state-of-the-art classification algorithms.