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Representation Learning from Limited Educational Data with Crowdsourced Labels

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Representation learning has been proven to play an important role in the unprecedented success of machine learning models in numerous tasks, such as machine translation, face recognition and recommendation. The majority of existing representation learning approaches often require a large number of consistent and noise-free labels. However, due to various reasons such as budget constraints and privacy concerns, labels are very limited in many real-world scenarios. Directly applying standard representation learning approaches on small labeled data sets will easily run into over-fitting problems and lead to sub-optimal solutions. Even worse, in some domains such as education, the limited labels are usually annotated by multiple workers with diverse expertise, which yields noises and inconsistency in such crowdsourcing settings. In this paper, we propose a novel framework which aims to learn effective representations from limited data with crowdsourced labels. Specifically, we design a grouping based deep neural network to learn embeddings from a limited number of training samples and present a Bayesian confidence estimator to capture the inconsistency among crowdsourced labels. Furthermore, to expedite the training process, we develop a hard example selection procedure to adaptively pick up training examples that are misclassified by the model. Extensive experiments conducted on three real-world data sets demonstrate the superiority of our framework on learning representations from limited data with crowdsourced labels, comparing with various state-of-the-art baselines. In addition, we provide a comprehensive analysis on each of the main components of our proposed framework and also introduce the promising results it achieved in our real production to fully understand the proposed framework.


The Relativity of Induction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Lately there has been a lot of discussion about why deep learning algorithms perform better than we would theoretically suspect. To get insight into this question, it helps to improve our understanding of how learning works. We explore the core problem of generalization and show that long-accepted Occam's razor and parsimony principles are insufficient to ground learning. Instead, we derive and demonstrate a set of relativistic principles that yield clearer insight into the nature and dynamics of learning. We show that concepts of simplicity are fundamentally contingent, that all learning operates relative to an initial guess, and that generalization cannot be measured or strongly inferred, but that it can be expected given enough observation. Using these principles, we reconstruct our understanding in terms of distributed learning systems whose components inherit beliefs and update them. We then apply this perspective to elucidate the nature of some real world inductive processes including deep learning.


Cause vs. Effect in Context-Sensitive Prediction of Business Process Instances

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Predicting undesirable events during the execution of a business process instance provides the process participants with an opportunity to intervene and keep the process aligned with its goals. Few approaches for tackling this challenge consider a multi-perspective view, where the flow perspective of the process is combined with its surrounding context. Given the many sources of data in today's world, context can vary widely and have various meanings. This paper addresses the issue of context being cause or effect of the next event and its impact on next event prediction. We leverage previous work on probabilistic models to develop a Dynamic Bayesian Network technique. Probabilistic models are considered comprehensible and they allow the end-user and his or her understanding of the domain to be involved in the prediction. Our technique models context attributes that have either a cause or effect relationship towards the event. We evaluate our technique with two real-life data sets and benchmark it with other techniques from the field of predictive process monitoring. The results show that our solution achieves superior prediction results if context information is correctly introduced into the model.


Modeling human visual search: A combined Bayesian searcher and saliency map approach for eye movement guidance in natural scenes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Finding objects is essential for almost any daily-life visual task. Saliency models have been useful to predict fixation locations in natural images, but are static, i.e., they provide no information about the time-sequence of fixations. Nowadays, one of the biggest challenges in the field is to go beyond saliency maps to predict a sequence of fixations related to a visual task, such as searching for a given target. Bayesian observer models have been proposed for this task, as they represent visual search as an active sampling process. Nevertheless, they were mostly evaluated on artificial images, and how they adapt to natural images remains largely unexplored. Here, we propose a unified Bayesian model for visual search guided by saliency maps as prior information. We validated our model with a visual search experiment in natural scenes recording eye movements. We show that, although state-of-the-art saliency models perform well in predicting the first two fixations in a visual search task, their performance degrades to chance afterward. This suggests that saliency maps alone are good to model bottom-up first impressions, but are not enough to explain the scanpaths when top-down task information is critical. Thus, we propose to use them as priors of Bayesian searchers. This approach leads to a behavior very similar to humans for the whole scanpath, both in the percentage of target found as a function of the fixation rank and the scanpath similarity, reproducing the entire sequence of eye movements.


Group-wise Contrastive Learning for Neural Dialogue Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural dialogue response generation has gained much popularity in recent years. Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) objective is widely adopted in existing dialogue model learning. However, models trained with MLE objective function are plagued by the low-diversity issue when it comes to the open-domain conversational setting. Inspired by the observation that humans not only learn from the positive signals but also benefit from correcting behaviors of undesirable actions, in this work, we introduce contrastive learning into dialogue generation, where the model explicitly perceives the difference between the well-chosen positive and negative utterances. Specifically, we employ a pretrained baseline model as a reference. During contrastive learning, the target dialogue model is trained to give higher conditional probabilities for the positive samples, and lower conditional probabilities for those negative samples, compared to the reference model. To manage the multi-mapping relations prevailed in human conversation, we augment contrastive dialogue learning with group-wise dual sampling. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed group-wise contrastive learning framework is suited for training a wide range of neural dialogue generation models with very favorable performance over the baseline training approaches.


Unsupervised learning for vascular heterogeneity assessment of glioblastoma based on magnetic resonance imaging: The Hemodynamic Tissue Signature

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This thesis focuses on the research and development of the Hemodynamic Tissue Signature (HTS) method: an unsupervised machine learning approach to describe the vascular heterogeneity of glioblastomas by means of perfusion MRI analysis. The HTS builds on the concept of habitats. An habitat is defined as a sub-region of the lesion with a particular MRI profile describing a specific physiological behavior. The HTS method delineates four habitats within the glioblastoma: the High Angiogenic Tumor (HAT) habitat, as the most perfused region of the enhancing tumor; the Low Angiogenic Tumor (LAT) habitat, as the region of the enhancing tumor with a lower angiogenic profile; the potentially Infiltrated Peripheral Edema (IPE) habitat, as the non-enhancing region adjacent to the tumor with elevated perfusion indexes; and the Vasogenic Peripheral Edema (VPE) habitat, as the remaining edema of the lesion with the lowest perfusion profile. The results of this thesis have been published in ten scientific contributions, including top-ranked journals and conferences in the areas of Medical Informatics, Statistics and Probability, Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Machine Learning and Data Mining and Biomedical Engineering. An industrial patent registered in Spain (ES201431289A), Europe (EP3190542A1) and EEUU (US20170287133A1) was also issued, summarizing the efforts of the thesis to generate tangible assets besides the academic revenue obtained from research publications. Finally, the methods, technologies and original ideas conceived in this thesis led to the foundation of ONCOANALYTICS CDX, a company framed into the business model of companion diagnostics for pharmaceutical compounds, thought as a vehicle to facilitate the industrialization of the ONCOhabitats technology.


A Review of Visual Descriptors and Classification Techniques Used in Leaf Species Identification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Plants are fundamentally important to life. Key research areas in plant science include plant species identification, weed classification using hyper spectral images, monitoring plant health and tracing leaf growth, and the semantic interpretation of leaf information. Botanists easily identify plant species by discriminating between the shape of the leaf, tip, base, leaf margin and leaf vein, as well as the texture of the leaf and the arrangement of leaflets of compound leaves. Because of the increasing demand for experts and calls for biodiversity, there is a need for intelligent systems that recognize and characterize leaves so as to scrutinize a particular species, the diseases that affect them, the pattern of leaf growth, and so on. We review several image processing methods in the feature extraction of leaves, given that feature extraction is a crucial technique in computer vision. As computers cannot comprehend images, they are required to be converted into features by individually analysing image shapes, colours, textures and moments. Images that look the same may deviate in terms of geometric and photometric variations. In our study, we also discuss certain machine learning classifiers for an analysis of different species of leaves.


Information Theoretic Meta Learning with Gaussian Processes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We formulate meta learning using information theoretic concepts such as mutual information and the information bottleneck. The idea is to learn a stochastic representation or encoding of the task description, given by a training or support set, that is highly informative about predicting the validation set. By making use of variational approximations to the mutual information, we derive a general and tractable framework for meta learning. We particularly develop new memorybased meta learning algorithms based on Gaussian processes and derive extensions that combine memory and gradient-based meta learning. We demonstrate our method on few-shot regression and classification by using standard benchmarks such as Omniglot, mini-Imagenet and Augmented Omniglot. Such systems require training deep neural networks from a set of tasks drawn from a common distribution, where each task is described by a small amount of experience, typically divided into a training or support set and a validation set. By sharing information across tasks the neural network can learn to rapidly adapt to new tasks and generalize from few examples at test time. Several few-shot learning algorithms use memory-based (Vinyals et al., 2016; Ravi & Larochelle, 2017) or gradient-based procedures (Finn et al., 2017; Nichol et al., 2018), with the gradient-based model agnostic meta learning algorithm (MAML) by Finn et al. (2017) being very influential in the literature. Despite the success of specific schemes, one fundamental issue in meta learning is concerned with deriving unified principles that can allow to relate different approaches and invent new schemes.


Action and Perception as Divergence Minimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a unified objective for action and perception of intelligent agents. Extending representation learning and control, we minimize the joint divergence between the world and a target distribution. Intuitively, such agents use perception to align their beliefs with the world, and use actions to align the world with their beliefs. Minimizing the joint divergence to an expressive target maximizes the mutual information between the agent's representations and inputs, thus inferring representations that are informative of past inputs and exploring future inputs that are informative of the representations. This lets us derive intrinsic objectives, such as representation learning, information gain, empowerment, and skill discovery from minimal assumptions. Moreover, interpreting the target distribution as a latent variable model suggests expressive world models as a path toward highly adaptive agents that seek large niches in their environments, while rendering task rewards optional. The presented framework provides a common language for comparing a wide range of objectives, facilitates understanding of latent variables for decision making, and offers a recipe for designing novel objectives. We recommend deriving future agent objectives from the joint divergence to facilitate comparison, to point out the agent's target distribution, and to identify the intrinsic objective terms needed to reach that distribution.


13 Algorithms and 4 Learning Methods of Machine Learning

#artificialintelligence

According to the similarity of the function and form of the algorithm, we can classify the algorithm, such as tree-based algorithm, neural network-based algorithm, and so on. Of course, the scope of machine learning is very large, and it is difficult for some algorithms to be clearly classified into a certain category. Regression algorithm is a type of algorithm that tries to explore the relationship between variables by using a measure of error. Regression algorithm is a powerful tool for statistical machine learning. In the field of machine learning, when people talk about regression, sometimes they refer to a type of problem and sometimes a type of algorithm.