Rule-Based Reasoning


A Personal Tribute to Patrick Henry Winston

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Patrick Henry Winston was, by all standards, a rock star in the field of Artificial Intelligence. In 1970, Patrick wrote his Ph.D. thesis, in which he explored -- under the improvisational supervision of his advisor, Marvin Minsky -- the theoretical difficulties of learning, and wrote in Lisp a blocks-world program that could perceive blocks and block-enabled architectures (e.g. That computer program was able to learn to generalize its existing knowledge when comparing a baseline example architecture with a new example, and specialize its existing knowledge when comparing a baseline example with a near miss. That was the first effort ever in making machines learn things in ways that resemble how humans learn things. Some say that was "real" Machine Learning, much unlike statistical Machine Learning and neural-net Machine Learning, whereby programmers would program their computers to slavishly crunch through hundreds of billions of data points, which is nothing like how people learn new things, but has become popular because the theory behind them are much more understood and much easier to implement, and because this kind of big-data crunching is practically allowed for due to the tremendous computing power that we have today.


Artificial intelligence: a winning strategy for payments - FinTech Futures

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The race is on to reduce fraud and continue improving payment flows. Artificial intelligence (AI) offers a winning strategy, says Chalapathy Neti, head, AI and machine learning platform, Swift. AI is out of the lab and already well on its way to delivering smarter tech solutions in our daily lives. Just look at the way Amazon and Netflix use machine learning algorithms to continually serve us fresh content and products based on our previous behaviours. We get a better, more personalised experience while they strengthen their business models.


Data Mining: Market Basket Analysis with Apriori Algorithm

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Some of us go to the grocery with a standard list; while some of us have a hard time sticking to our grocery shopping list, no matter how determined we are. No matter which type of person you are, retailers will always be experts at making various temptations to inflate your budget. Remember the time when you had the "Ohh, I might need this as well." Retailers boost their sales by relying on this one simple intuition. People that buy this will most likely want to buy that as well. People who buy bread will have a higher chance of buying butter together, therefore an experienced assortment manager will definitely know that having a discount on bread pushes the sales on butter as well.


TikTok users will soon have an easier way to add popular GIFs

Engadget

TikTok users will soon have even more ways to make their videos stand out from the crowd. The service has announced the TikTok Library, which will grant creators access to more entertainment-based content. You'll be able to find GIFs, clips from your favorite TV shows, memes and other content, which you can slot into your TikToks. Although there are already ways to insert GIFs from Giphy into TikTok videos, it should be easier to do that once you have access to the library. Until now, Giphy GIFs have been available as Stickers and via the Green Screen effect.


Privacy-Preserving AI for Future Networks

Communications of the ACM

Telco networks and systems evolved over the years to deal with novel services. Today, they are highly complex, distributed ecosystems composed of very diverse sub-environments (see Figure 1). They include myriad types of devices, connectivity means, protocols, and infrastructures often managed by different teams with varying expertise and tools, or even different companies. High-level view of the complexity of telcos' networks and systems with a large variety of devices, connectivity means, protocols, and infrastructures. Traditional network management solutions (for example, network over-provisioning, rule-based systems, reactive approaches) are reaching their limits in dealing with this complex ecosystem.


Japan to strengthen fertility treatment consultation system

The Japan Times

Japan will strengthen its consultation system for fertility treatment as its public health insurance program starts covering such treatment in April. The health ministry plans to integrate related public consultation windows under a single system. The new facilities will help people with specialist advice and provide emotional support to women who feel anxious. In the fiscal 2022 revision of official medical fees, the public insurance coverage will be extended to fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination as part of efforts to shore up the country's falling birthrate. Thanks to this, costs of fertility treatment that have been fully paid by patients will be limited to 30% in principle.


The AI Project Cycle

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The AI Project Cycle is a cycle/order of an AI Project which defines every step an organization must take to harness/get value (Monetary or others) from that AI Project to get more ROI (Return on Investment). You might have seen AI Project Cycle images Starting from'Problem Scoping', ignoring'Problem Identification', But in this article we will discuss about the one with'Problem Identification' which is a more accurate representation. In Today's Article, we will discuss the various stages of the AI Project Cycle, starting with Problem Identification, followed by Problem Scoping, Data Acquisition, Data Exploration, Data Modelling, Evaluation and finally Deployment. You may think that the Tip of the Iceberg is the problem, but in most cases, it's not. In many cases, the problems are not obvious, the problem may look small, but digging deep and down into the problem, we will realize that the problem has a lot to it, and that the beginning is nothing.


Multi-Label Annotation of Chest Abdomen Pelvis Computed Tomography Text Reports Using Deep Learning

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Purpose: To develop high throughput multi-label annotators for body (chest, abdomen, and pelvis) Computed Tomography (CT) reports that can be applied across a variety of abnormalities, organs, and disease states. Approach: We used a dictionary approach to develop rule-based algorithms (RBA) for extraction of disease labels from radiology text reports. We targeted three organ systems (lungs/pleura, liver/gallbladder, kidneys/ureters) with four diseases per system based on their prevalence in our dataset. To expand the algorithms beyond pre-defined keywords, attention-guided recurrent neural networks (RNN) were trained using the RBA-extracted labels to classify reports as being positive for one or more diseases or normal for each organ system. Confounding effects on model performance were evaluated using random initialization or pre-trained embedding as well as different sizes of training datasets. Performance was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) against 2,158 manually obtained labels. Results: Our models extracted disease labels from 261,229 radiology reports of 112,501 unique subjects. Pre-trained models outperformed random initialization across all diseases. As the training dataset size was reduced, performance was robust except for a few diseases with relatively small number of cases. Pre-trained classification AUCs achieved > 0.95 for all five disease outcomes across all three organ systems. Conclusions: Our label-extracting pipeline was able to encompass a variety of cases and diseases by generalizing beyond strict rules with exceptional accuracy. This method can be easily adapted to enable automated labeling of hospital-scale medical data sets for training image-based disease classifiers.


An Artificial Intelligence Rant: Neural Networks Are Not Magic, They're Code

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I was reading yet another document about artificial intelligence (AI). The introduction was covering the basics and the history of the subject. The authors mentioned expert systems and the real flaws that tactic had. Then the authors said that, luckily, there was an alternative called "machine learning." Yet more people who think anything older than them couldn't be classified the same way as the things they know.


Council Post: Comparing Legacy Rules-Based Cybersecurity Platforms And AI-Based Platforms

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For example, this could include highly intensive data-crunching operations and pattern extraction. Intense analyst work of sifting through the massive amounts of data can be reduced by applying a generative model that learns patterns from the data and reduces the false positives associated with rule-based and supervised machine learning approaches.