Natural Language Processing (NLP) has long played a significant role in the compliance processes for major banks around the world. By implementing the different NLP techniques into the production processes, compliance departments can maintain detailed checks and keep up with regulator demands. All of these areas can benefit from document processing and the use of NLP techniques to get through the process more effectively. Certain verification tasks fall beyond the realm of using traditional, rules-based NLP systems. This is where deep learning can help fill these gaps, providing smoother and more efficient compliance checks. There are several challenges that make the rules-based system more complicated to use when undergoing check routines.
Extracting information from unstructured text documents is a demanding task, since these documents can have a broad variety of different layouts and a non-trivial reading order, like it is the case for multi-column documents or nested tables. Additionally, many business documents are received in paper form, meaning that the textual contents need to be digitized before further analysis. Nonetheless, automatic detection and capturing of crucial document information like the sender address would boost many companies' processing efficiency. In this work we propose a hybrid approach that combines deep learning with reasoning for finding and extracting addresses from unstructured text documents. We use a visual deep learning model to detect the boundaries of possible address regions on the scanned document images and validate these results by analyzing the containing text using domain knowledge represented as a rule based system.
Due to the fast pace of life and online communications, the prevalence of English and the QWERTY keyboard, people tend to forgo using diacritics, make typographical errors (typos) when typing. Restoring diacritics and correcting spelling is important for proper language use and disambiguation of texts for both humans and downstream algorithms. However, both of these problems are typically addressed separately, i.e., state-of-the-art diacritics restoration methods do not tolerate other typos. In this work, we tackle both problems at once by employing newly-developed ByT5 byte-level transformer models. Our simultaneous diacritics restoration and typos correction approach demonstrates near state-of-the-art performance in 13 languages, reaching >96% of the alpha-word accuracy. We also perform diacritics restoration alone on 12 benchmark datasets with the additional one for the Lithuanian language. The experimental investigation proves that our approach is able to achieve comparable results (>98%) to previously reported despite being trained on fewer data. Our approach is also able to restore diacritics in words not seen during training with >76% accuracy. We also show the accuracies to further improve with longer training. All this shows a great real-world application potential of our suggested methods to more data, languages, and error classes.
By now, the average business user has been deluged with the term Artificial Intelligence so much that he or she likely knows it frequently involves machine learning for enterprise applications of Conversational AI, intelligent search, or Natural Language Generation. With the general population still captivated by the hype around deep learning, neural networks, and predictive models, it's easy to consider rules-based systems for these applications as passé, or perhaps worse, outdated approaches to the suite of natural language technologies. According to Arria NLG CTO Neil Burnett, however, nothing could be further from reality. "Using rules is a better approach than just a [pure] machine learning approach," Burnett revealed. "We still do a good amount of rules-based generation. It's a little more elaborate than you might imagine. It's kind of a rules based approach mixed in with a little bit of ML as well."
Opponent modeling is the ability to use prior knowledge and observations in order to predict the behavior of an opponent. This survey presents a comprehensive overview of existing opponent modeling techniques for adversarial domains, many of which must address stochastic, continuous, or concurrent actions, and sparse, partially observable payoff structures. We discuss all the components of opponent modeling systems, including feature extraction, learning algorithms, and strategy abstractions. These discussions lead us to propose a new form of analysis for describing and predicting the evolution of game states over time. We then introduce a new framework that facilitates method comparison, analyze a representative selection of techniques using the proposed framework, and highlight common trends among recently proposed methods. Finally, we list several open problems and discuss future research directions inspired by AI research on opponent modeling and related research in other disciplines.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.
Petropoulos, Fotios, Apiletti, Daniele, Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, Babai, Mohamed Zied, Barrow, Devon K., Taieb, Souhaib Ben, Bergmeir, Christoph, Bessa, Ricardo J., Bijak, Jakub, Boylan, John E., Browell, Jethro, Carnevale, Claudio, Castle, Jennifer L., Cirillo, Pasquale, Clements, Michael P., Cordeiro, Clara, Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Cyrino, De Baets, Shari, Dokumentov, Alexander, Ellison, Joanne, Fiszeder, Piotr, Franses, Philip Hans, Frazier, David T., Gilliland, Michael, Gönül, M. Sinan, Goodwin, Paul, Grossi, Luigi, Grushka-Cockayne, Yael, Guidolin, Mariangela, Guidolin, Massimo, Gunter, Ulrich, Guo, Xiaojia, Guseo, Renato, Harvey, Nigel, Hendry, David F., Hollyman, Ross, Januschowski, Tim, Jeon, Jooyoung, Jose, Victor Richmond R., Kang, Yanfei, Koehler, Anne B., Kolassa, Stephan, Kourentzes, Nikolaos, Leva, Sonia, Li, Feng, Litsiou, Konstantia, Makridakis, Spyros, Martin, Gael M., Martinez, Andrew B., Meeran, Sheik, Modis, Theodore, Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, Önkal, Dilek, Paccagnini, Alessia, Panagiotelis, Anastasios, Panapakidis, Ioannis, Pavía, Jose M., Pedio, Manuela, Pedregal, Diego J., Pinson, Pierre, Ramos, Patrícia, Rapach, David E., Reade, J. James, Rostami-Tabar, Bahman, Rubaszek, Michał, Sermpinis, Georgios, Shang, Han Lin, Spiliotis, Evangelos, Syntetos, Aris A., Talagala, Priyanga Dilini, Talagala, Thiyanga S., Tashman, Len, Thomakos, Dimitrios, Thorarinsdottir, Thordis, Todini, Ezio, Arenas, Juan Ramón Trapero, Wang, Xiaoqian, Winkler, Robert L., Yusupova, Alisa, Ziel, Florian
Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.
Besides entity-centric knowledge, usually organized as Knowledge Graph (KG), events are also an essential kind of knowledge in the world, which trigger the spring up of event-centric knowledge representation form like Event KG (EKG). It plays an increasingly important role in many machine learning and artificial intelligence applications, such as intelligent search, question-answering, recommendation, and text generation. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of EKG from history, ontology, instance, and application views. Specifically, to characterize EKG thoroughly, we focus on its history, definitions, schema induction, acquisition, related representative graphs/systems, and applications. The development processes and trends are studied therein. We further summarize perspective directions to facilitate future research on EKG.
Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.
Certain aspects of the explainability of AI systems will be critically discussed. This especially with focus on the feasibility of the task of making every AI system explainable. Emphasis will be given to difficulties related to the explainability of highly complex and efficient AI systems which deliver decisions whose explanation defies classical logical schemes of cause and effect. AI systems have provably delivered unintelligible solutions which in retrospect were characterized as ingenious (for example move 37 of the game 2 of AlphaGo). It will be elaborated on arguments supporting the notion that if AI-solutions were to be discarded in advance because of their not being thoroughly comprehensible, a great deal of the potentiality of intelligent systems would be wasted.