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"Planning is the process of generating (possibly partial) representations of future behavior prior to the use of such plans to constrain or control that behavior. The outcome is usually a set of actions, with temporal and other constraints on them, for execution by some agent or agents. As a core aspect of human intelligence, planning has been studied since the earliest days of AI and cognitive science. Planning research has led to many useful tools for real-world applications, and has yielded significant insights into the organization of behavior and the nature of reasoning about actions."
– Planning entry by Austin Tate in the MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.
Planning algorithms are used in computational systems to direct autonomous behavior. In a canonical application, for example, planning for autonomous vehicles is used to automate the static or continuous planning towards performance, resource management, or functional goals (e.g., arriving at the destination, managing fuel fuel consumption). Existing planning algorithms assume non-adversarial settings; a least-cost plan is developed based on available environmental information (i.e., the input instance). Yet, it is unclear how such algorithms will perform in the face of adversaries attempting to thwart the planner. In this paper, we explore the security of planning algorithms used in cyber- and cyber-physical systems.
In human-aware planning systems, a planning agent might need to explain its plan to a human user when that plan appears to be non-feasible or sub-optimal. A popular approach, called model reconciliation, has been proposed as a way to bring the model of the human user closer to the agent’s model. To do so, the agent provides an explanation that can be used to update the model of human such that the agent’s plan is feasible or optimal to the human user. Existing approaches to solve this problem have been based on automated planning methods and have been limited to classical planning problems only. In this paper, we approach the model reconciliation problem from a different perspective, that of knowledge representation and reasoning, and demonstrate that our approach can be applied not only to classical planning problems but also hybrid systems planning problems with durative actions and events/processes. In particular, we propose a logic-based framework for explanation generation, where given a knowledge base KBa (of an agent) and a knowledge base KBh (of a human user), each encoding their knowledge of a planning problem, and that KBa entails a query q (e.g., that a proposed plan of the agent is valid), the goal is to identify an explanation ε ⊆ KBa such that when it is used to update KBh, then the updated KBh also entails q. More specifically, we make the following contributions in this paper: (1) We formally define the notion of logic-based explanations in the context of model reconciliation problems; (2) We introduce a number of cost functions that can be used to reflect preferences between explanations; (3) We present algorithms to compute explanations for both classical planning and hybrid systems planning problems; and (4) We empirically evaluate their performance on such problems. Our empirical results demonstrate that, on classical planning problems, our approach is faster than the state of the art when the explanations are long or when the size of the knowledge base is small (e.g., the plans to be explained are short). They also demonstrate that our approach is efficient for hybrid systems planning problems. Finally, we evaluate the real-world efficacy of explanations generated by our algorithms through a controlled human user study, where we develop a proof-of-concept visualization system and use it as a medium for explanation communication.
A computer-aided process planning system should ideally generate and optimize process plans to ensure the application of good manufacturing practices and maintain the consistency of the desired functional specifications of a part during its production processes. Crucial processes, such as selecting machining resources, determining set-up plans and sequencing operations of a part should be considered simultaneously to achieve global optimal solutions. In this paper, these processes are integrated and modelled as a constraint-based optimization problem, and a tabu search-based approach is proposed to solve it effectively. In the optimization model, costs of the utilized machines and cutting tools, machine changes, tool changes, set-ups and departure from good manufacturing practices (penalty function) are the optimization evaluation criteria. Precedence constraints from the geometric and manufacturing interactions between features and their related operations in a part are defined and classified according to their effects on the plan feasibility and processing quality.
I was already familiar with the mechanics of goal setting when I began using Noom, a weight loss app, to prep for my daughter's wedding. My graduate work in psychology focused on goal setting, so I knew goals should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-based). "Trying to lose weight" isn't a SMART goal because it isn't specific or time-based, but "losing 1 pound a week for five weeks" is. But I'd stopped setting specific, attainable goals during the decades-long crush of parenting and career. I didn't expect to be moved by a weekly text from a virtual coach and was surprised to feel compelled to respond to her goal request.
Samsung said on Friday it will commence a software update "as soon as possible" to address consumer complaints about a preinstalled app limiting the performance of Galaxy S22 smartphones. The issue stems from the Game Optimising Service (GOS) app on the phones, which automatically limits the performance of devices when it detects a gaming app is in operation. The South Korean tech giant said it plans to add an option in its game launcher app to allow users to prioritise performance through the software update. More details on how this option will work are expected to be announced later. Samsung previously explained that the GOS app was put on devices to prevent them from overheating and losing battery too quickly during gaming for consumer safety.
As AI and machine learning are becoming popular, Bias in AI decisions is a popular topic for research and focus in academia and industry AI practices. Bias can be specific to age, culture, country, gender, race, and other society-related biases. Bias can be due to a technique or data used for training and testing. Society-related bias creates different perceptions and people might interpret the AI/ML decisions in a wrong way. There is bias created by the AI and Machine learning systems in their decision making as the model learning is based on training and testing data.
Answer Set Planning refers to the use of Answer Set Programming (ASP) to compute plans, i.e., solutions to planning problems, that transform a given state of the world to another state. The development of efficient and scalable answer set solvers has provided a significant boost to the development of ASP-based planning systems. This paper surveys the progress made during the last two and a half decades in the area of answer set planning, from its foundations to its use in challenging planning domains. The survey explores the advantages and disadvantages of answer set planning. It also discusses typical applications of answer set planning and presents a set of challenges for future research.
Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a class of methods for solving complex decision-making problems through the synergy of Monte-Carlo planning and Reinforcement Learning (RL). The highly combinatorial nature of the problems commonly addressed by MCTS requires the use of efficient exploration strategies for navigating the planning tree and quickly convergent value backup methods. These crucial problems are particularly evident in recent advances that combine MCTS with deep neural networks for function approximation. In this work, we propose two methods for improving the convergence rate and exploration based on a newly introduced backup operator and entropy regularization. We provide strong theoretical guarantees to bound convergence rate, approximation error, and regret of our methods. Moreover, we introduce a mathematical framework based on the use of the $\alpha$-divergence for backup and exploration in MCTS. We show that this theoretical formulation unifies different approaches, including our newly introduced ones, under the same mathematical framework, allowing to obtain different methods by simply changing the value of $\alpha$. In practice, our unified perspective offers a flexible way to balance between exploration and exploitation by tuning the single $\alpha$ parameter according to the problem at hand. We validate our methods through a rigorous empirical study from basic toy problems to the complex Atari games, and including both MDP and POMDP problems.
This paper addresses the problem of learning abstractions that boost robot planning performance while providing strong guarantees of reliability. Although state-of-the-art hierarchical robot planning algorithms allow robots to efficiently compute long-horizon motion plans for achieving user desired tasks, these methods typically rely upon environment-dependent state and action abstractions that need to be hand-designed by experts. We present a new approach for bootstrapping the entire hierarchical planning process. This allows us to compute abstract states and actions for new environments automatically using the critical regions predicted by a deep neural network with an auto-generated robot-specific architecture. We show that the learned abstractions can be used with a novel multi-source bi-directional hierarchical robot planning algorithm that is sound and probabilistically complete. An extensive empirical evaluation on twenty different settings using holonomic and non-holonomic robots shows that (a) our learned abstractions provide the information necessary for efficient multi-source hierarchical planning; and that (b) this approach of learning, abstractions, and planning outperforms state-of-the-art baselines by nearly a factor of ten in terms of planning time on test environments not seen during training.