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Modern Computing: A Short History, 1945-2022

#artificialintelligence

Inspired by A New History of Modern Computing by Thomas Haigh and Paul E. Ceruzzi. But the selection of key events in the journey from ENIAC to Tesla, from Data Processing to Big Data, is mine. This was the first computer made by Apple Computers Inc, which became one of the fastest growing ... [ ] companies in history, launching a number of innovative and influential computer hardware and software products. Most home computer users in the 1970s were hobbyists who designed and assembled their own machines. The Apple I, devised in a bedroom by Steve Wozniak, Steven Jobs and Ron Wayne, was a basic circuit board to which enthusiasts would add display units and keyboards. April 1945 John von Neumann's "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC," often called the founding document of modern computing, defines "the stored program concept." July 1945 Vannevar Bush publishes "As We May Think," in which he envisions the "Memex," a memory extension device serving as a large personal repository of information that could be instantly retrieved through associative links.


Conversational Agents: Theory and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this chapter, we provide a review of conversational agents (CAs), discussing chatbots, intended for casual conversation with a user, as well as task-oriented agents that generally engage in discussions intended to reach one or several specific goals, often (but not always) within a specific domain. We also consider the concept of embodied conversational agents, briefly reviewing aspects such as character animation and speech processing. The many different approaches for representing dialogue in CAs are discussed in some detail, along with methods for evaluating such agents, emphasizing the important topics of accountability and interpretability. A brief historical overview is given, followed by an extensive overview of various applications, especially in the fields of health and education. We end the chapter by discussing benefits and potential risks regarding the societal impact of current and future CA technology.


Measure Your Creativity With Natural language processing!

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Natural language processing by means of artificial intelligence is nothing new. Siri helps us with our schedule and Alexa answers our questions about different stuff. But NLP possibilities are not limited to simply answering questions. An ultra-large neural network GPT-3 by Open AI, has been recently released for public use and shows amazing results in solving logical problems and giving answers to general questions. A larger and even smarter neural network and text generation and understanding has been released by DeepMind. Scientists faced the problem of a quick way to assess creativity.


AI

#artificialintelligence

AI or artificial intelligence is an often-misused term. Artificial Intelligence simply means intelligence in machines. This contrasts with natural intelligence, which is found in humans and other natural organisms. AI gained its name and became a formal field of research in 1956. Initial work led to new tools for solving mathematical problems.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Multi Document Reading Comprehension

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Reading Comprehension (RC) is a task of answering a question from a given passage or a set of passages. In the case of multiple passages, the task is to find the best possible answer to the question. Recent trials and experiments in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) have proved that machines can be provided with the ability to not only process the text in the passage and understand its meaning to answer the question from the passage, but also can surpass the Human Performance on many datasets such as Standford's Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD). This paper presents a study on Reading Comprehension and its evolution in Natural Language Processing over the past few decades. We shall also study how the task of Single Document Reading Comprehension acts as a building block for our Multi-Document Reading Comprehension System. In the latter half of the paper, we'll be studying about a recently proposed model for Multi-Document Reading Comprehension - RE3QA that is comprised of a Reader, Retriever, and a Re-ranker based network to fetch the best possible answer from a given set of passages.


Future of Machine Learning: Ways ML and AI Will Drive Innovation & Change

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By 2022, the global ML market is expected to be worth $8.81 billion. It's not a surprise that Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are two of the top buzzwords in today's technological world. But, how will the two technologies create innovation and change in the near future? Do you have the answer? If not, continue reading to learn why AI and ML are two of the most promising technologies that will drive innovation and change in the coming years.


This is how dangerous AI can be.

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence is revolutionizing the world around us. Artificial Intelligence will not only impact how we use technology, it will transform how we live, interact with others and work. It's set to create new industries that didn't exist before and disrupt existing ones. AlphaGo was a watershed moment. It was the first time an AI won against a top human player in a game that requires intuition and creativity.


Est-ce que vous compute? Code-switching, cultural identity, and AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Cultural code-switching concerns how we adjust our overall behaviours, manners of speaking, and appearance in response to a perceived change in our social environment. We defend the need to investigate cultural code-switching capacities in artificial intelligence systems. We explore a series of ethical and epistemic issues that arise when bringing cultural code-switching to bear on artificial intelligence. Building upon Dotson's (2014) analysis of testimonial smothering, we discuss how emerging technologies in AI can give rise to epistemic oppression, and specifically, a form of self-silencing that we call 'cultural smothering'. By leaving the socio-dynamic features of cultural code-switching unaddressed, AI systems risk negatively impacting already-marginalised social groups by widening opportunity gaps and further entrenching social inequalities.


Ethical and social risks of harm from Language Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper aims to help structure the risk landscape associated with large-scale Language Models (LMs). In order to foster advances in responsible innovation, an in-depth understanding of the potential risks posed by these models is needed. A wide range of established and anticipated risks are analysed in detail, drawing on multidisciplinary expertise and literature from computer science, linguistics, and social sciences. We outline six specific risk areas: I. Discrimination, Exclusion and Toxicity, II. Information Hazards, III. Misinformation Harms, V. Malicious Uses, V. Human-Computer Interaction Harms, VI. Automation, Access, and Environmental Harms. The first area concerns the perpetuation of stereotypes, unfair discrimination, exclusionary norms, toxic language, and lower performance by social group for LMs. The second focuses on risks from private data leaks or LMs correctly inferring sensitive information. The third addresses risks arising from poor, false or misleading information including in sensitive domains, and knock-on risks such as the erosion of trust in shared information. The fourth considers risks from actors who try to use LMs to cause harm. The fifth focuses on risks specific to LLMs used to underpin conversational agents that interact with human users, including unsafe use, manipulation or deception. The sixth discusses the risk of environmental harm, job automation, and other challenges that may have a disparate effect on different social groups or communities. In total, we review 21 risks in-depth. We discuss the points of origin of different risks and point to potential mitigation approaches. Lastly, we discuss organisational responsibilities in implementing mitigations, and the role of collaboration and participation. We highlight directions for further research, particularly on expanding the toolkit for assessing and evaluating the outlined risks in LMs.