"The capacity to think about our own thinking may lie at the heart of what it means to be both human and intelligent. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have investigated these matters for many years. Researchers in artificial intelligence have gone further, attempting to implement actual machines that mimic, simulate, and perhaps even replicate this capacity, called metareasoning."
– from Metareasoning: Thinking about Thinking. Edited by Michael T. Cox and Anita Raja. MIT Press, 2011.
This manifesto proposes a simple model of metareasoning that constitutes a general framework to organize research on this topic. The claim is that metareasoning, like the actionperception cycle of reasoning, is composed of the introspective monitoring of reasoning and the subsequent meta-level control of reasoning. This model holds for single agent and multiagent systems and is broad enough to include models of self. We offer the model as a short conversation piece to which the community can compare and contrast individual theories.
Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of metacognition in intelligent systems. This article is part of a small section meant to give interested researchers an overview and sampling of the kinds of work currently being pursued in this broad area. The current article offers a review of recent research in two main topic areas: the monitoring and control of reasoning (metareasoning) and the monitoring and control of learning (metalearning).