We introduce a semantics for epistemic logic exploiting a belief base abstraction. Differently from existing Kripke-style semantics for epistemic logic in which the notions of possible world and epistemic alternative are primitive, in the proposed semantics they are non-primitive but are defined from the concept of belief base. We show that this semantics allows us to define the universal epistemic model in a simpler and more compact way than existing inductive constructions of it. We provide (i) a number of semantic equivalence results for both the basic epistemic language with "individual belief" operators and its extension by the notion of "only believing", and (ii) a lower bound complexity result for epistemic logic model checking relative to the universal epistemic model.
Commonsense reasoning is in principle a central problem in artificial intelligence, but it is a very difficult one. One approach that has been pursued since the earliest days of the field has been to encode commonsense knowledge as statements in a logic-based representation language and to implement commonsense reasoning as some form of logical inference. This paper surveys the use of logic-based representations of commonsense knowledge in artificial intelligence research.
Multi-context Systems (MCSs) are a formalism for systems consisting of knowledge bases (possibly heterogeneous and non-monotonic) that are interlinked via bridge rules, where the global system semantics emerges from the local semantics of the knowledge bases (also called contexts) in an equilibrium. While MCSs and related formalisms are inherently targeted for distributed set- tings, no truly distributed algorithms for their evaluation were available. We address this short- coming and present a suite of such algorithms which includes a basic algorithm DMCS, an ad- vanced version DMCSOPT that exploits topology-based optimizations, and a streaming algorithm DMCS-STREAMING that computes equilibria in packages of bounded size. The algorithms be- have quite differently in several respects, as experienced in thorough experimental evaluation of a system prototype. From the experimental results, we derive a guideline for choosing the appropriate algorithm and running mode in particular situations, determined by the parameter settings.
We give some semantic results for an epistemic logic incorporating dynamic operators to describe information changing events. Such events include epistemic changes, where agents become more informed about the non-changing state of the world, and ontic changes, wherein the world changes. The events are executed in information states that are modeled as pointed Kripke models. Our contribution consists of three semantic results. (i) Given two information states, there is an event transforming one into the other. The linguistic correspondent to this is that every consistent formula can be made true in every information state by the execution of an event. (ii) A more technical result is that: every event corresponds to an event in which the postconditions formalizing ontic change are assignments to `true' and `false' only (instead of assignments to arbitrary formulas in the logical language). `Corresponds' means that execution of either event in a given information state results in bisimilar information states. (iii) The third, also technical, result is that every event corresponds to a sequence of events wherein all postconditions are assignments of a single atom only (instead of simultaneous assignments of more than one atom).
The SNePS knowledge representation, reasoning, and acting system has several features that facilitate metacognition in SNePS-based agents. The most prominent is the fact that propositions are represented in SNePS as terms rather than as sentences, so that propositions can occur as argu- ments of propositions and other expressions without leaving first-order logic. The SNePS acting subsystem is integrated with the SNePS reasoning subsystem in such a way that: there are acts that affect what an agent believes; there are acts that specify knowledge-contingent acts and lack-of-knowledge acts; there are policies that serve as "daemons," triggering acts when certain propositions are believed or wondered about. The GLAIR agent architecture supports metacognition by specifying a location for the source of self-awareness and of a sense of situatedness in the world. Several SNePS-based agents have taken advantage of these facilities to engage in self-awareness and metacognition.