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The main effort of the research in knowledge representation is providing theories and systems for expressing structured knowledge and for accessing and reasoning with it in a principled way. Description Logics are considered the most important knowledge representation formalism unifying and giving a logical basis to the well known traditions of Frame-based systems, Semantic Networks and KL-ONE-like languages, Object-Oriented representations, Semantic data models, and Type systems.
While query answering in the presence of description logic (DL) ontologies is a well-studied problem, questions of static analysis such as query containment and query optimization have received less attention. In this paper, we study a rather general version of query containment that, unlike the classical version, cannot be reduced to query answering. First, we allow a restriction to be placed on the vocabulary used in the instance data, which can result in shorter equivalent queries; and second, we allow each query its own ontology rather than assuming a single ontology for both queries, which is crucial in applications to versioning and modularity. We also study global minimization of queries in the presence of DL ontologies, which is more subtle than for classical databases as minimal queries need not be isomorphic.
In Description Logic (DL) knowledge bases (KBs) information is typically captured by crisp concepts. For many applications, querying the KB by crisp query concepts is too restrictive. A controlled way of gradually relaxing a query concept can be achieved by the use of concept similarity measures. In this paper we formalize the task of instance query answering for crisp DL KBs using concepts relaxed by concept similarity measures. We investigate computation algorithms for this task in the DL EL, their complexity and properties for the employed similarity measure regarding whether unfoldable or general TBoxes are used.
We investigate conjunctive query inseparability of description logic (DL) knowledge bases (KBs) with respect to a given signature, a fundamental problem for KB versioning, module extraction, forgetting and knowledge exchange. We study the data and combined complexity of deciding KB query inseparability for fragments of Horn-ALCHI, including the DLs underpinning OWL 2 QL and OWL 2 EL. While all of these DLs are P-complete for data complexity, the combined complexity ranges from P to EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME. We also resolve two major open problems for OWL 2 QL by showing that TBox query inseparability and the membership problem for universal UCQ-solutions in knowledge exchange are both EXPTIME-complete for combined complexity.
We investigate a higher-order extension of the description logic (DL) SROIQ that provides a fixedly interpreted role semantically coupled with instantiation. It is useful to express interesting meta-level constraints on the modelled ontology. We provide a model-theoretic characterization of the semantics, and we show the decidability by means of reduction.
Some applications of Description Logic (DL) ontologies combine complete information (e.g., stemming from relational databases) with incomplete, open-world knowledge. Several research efforts in the last years have advocated closed predicates, which are predicates whose extension is interpreted as complete, as a suitable way to leverage partial completeness within the standard open-world semantics of DLs. These works have also studied the data complexity of query answering in the presence of closed predicates, which is generally intractable. In this paper we contribute to the understanding the combined complexity of the problem, by establishing tight complexity results for a range of DLs and query answering problems. In summary, our results show that consistency testing and instance query answering in the presence of closed predicates are feasible in NP even for rich dialects of the DL-Lite family; this is the lowest complexity that could be expected. For EL, in contrast, they are EXPTIME-complete, thus as hard as for ALC and some of its extensions.
Modeling real world domains requires ever more frequently to represent uncertain information. The DISPONTE semantics for probabilistic description logics allows to annotate axioms of a knowledge base with a value that represents their probability. In this paper we discuss approaches for performing inference from probabilistic ontologies following the DISPONTE semantics. We present the algorithm BUNDLE for computing the probability of queries. BUNDLE exploits an underlying Description Logic reasoner, such as Pellet, in order to find explanations for a query. These are then encoded in a Binary Decision Diagram that is used for computing the probability of the query.
In this paper, we overview the recently introduced general framework of Description Logic Based Dynamic Systems, which leverages Levesque's functional approach to model systems that evolve the extensional part of a description logic knowledge base by means of actions. This framework is parametric w.r.t. the adopted description logic and the progression mechanism. In this setting, we discuss verification and adversarial synthesis for specifications expressed in a variant of first-order mu-calculus, with a controlled form of quantification across successive states, and present key decidability results under the natural assumption of state-boundedness.
Deciding inseparability of description logic knowledge bases (KBs) with respect to conjunctive queries is fundamental for many KB engineering and maintenance tasks including versioning, module extraction, knowledge exchange and forgetting. We study the combined and data complexity of this inseparability problem for fragments of Horn-ALCHI, including the description logics underpinning OWL 2 QL and OWL 2 EL.
We study the data complexity of answering conjunctive queries over Description Logic knowledge bases constituted by a TBox and an ABox. In particular, we are interested in characterizing the FO- rewritability and the polynomial tractability boundaries of conjunctive query answering, depending on the expressive power of the DL used to express the knowledge base. What emerges from our complexity analysis is that the Description Logics of the DL-Lite family are essentially the maximal logics allowing for conjunctive query answering through standard database technology.
A knowledge-based program defines the behavior of an agent by combining primitive actions, programming constructs and test conditions that make explicit reference to the agent's knowledge. In this paper we consider a setting where an agent is equipped with a Description Logic (DL) knowledge base providing general domain knowledge and an incomplete description of the initial situation. We introduce a corresponding new DL-based action language that allows for representing both physical and sensing actions, and that we then use to build knowledge-based programs with test conditions expressed in the epistemic DL. After proving undecidability for the general case, we then discuss a restricted fragment where verification becomes decidable. The provided proof is constructive and comes with an upper bound on the procedure's complexity.