Collaborating Authors

Case-Based Reasoning

Grip2u iPhone Case Review: Boost And Slim Cases Feature Signature Band To Prevent Drops

International Business Times

Who are the Grip2u Phone Cases for? Cell phones are expensive, delicate devices and nobody knows that better than cell phone case manufacturer Grip2u. Their entire line of products is dedicated to protecting cell phones while also making them easier to use thanks to the signature band found on the back of the case. So how does a Grip2u case compare to a standard cell phone case? We looked at two different Grip2u models, the Boost and Slim, and compared them to a very basic case using an iPhone XR.

How to Choose the Best Nearest Neighbors Algorithm


In my previous post [KNN is Dead!], I have compared an ANN algorithm called HNSW with sklearn's KNN and proved that HNSW has vastly superior performance with a 380X speed up while delivering 99.3% of the same results. As a data scientist, I am a huge proponent of making data-driven decisions, as I mentioned in How to Choose the Best Keras Pre-Trained Model. So, in this post, I'll demonstrate a data-driven way to decide which ANN algorithm is the best choice for your custom dataset by using the excellent ann-benchmarks GitHub repository. The ann-benchmarks code compares multiple ANN algorithms by plotting each algorithm's Recall vs Queries per second.

Discriminative Nearest Neighbor Few-Shot Intent Detection by Transferring Natural Language Inference Artificial Intelligence

Intent detection is one of the core components of goal-oriented dialog systems, and detecting out-of-scope (OOS) intents is also a practically important skill. Few-shot learning is attracting much attention to mitigate data scarcity, but OOS detection becomes even more challenging. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective approach, discriminative nearest neighbor classification with deep self-attention. Unlike softmax classifiers, we leverage BERT-style pairwise encoding to train a binary classifier that estimates the best matched training example for a user input. We propose to boost the discriminative ability by transferring a natural language inference (NLI) model. Our extensive experiments on a large-scale multi-domain intent detection task show that our method achieves more stable and accurate in-domain and OOS detection accuracy than RoBERTa-based classifiers and embedding-based nearest neighbor approaches. More notably, the NLI transfer enables our 10-shot model to perform competitively with 50-shot or even full-shot classifiers, while we can keep the inference time constant by leveraging a faster embedding retrieval model.

COMET: An Application of Model-Based Reasoning to Accounting Systems

AI Magazine

An important problem faced by auditors is gauging how much reliance can be placed on the accounting systems that process millions of transactions to produce the numbers summarized in a company's financial statements. Accounting sys-ems contain internal controls, procedures designed to detect and correct errors and irregularities that can occur in the processing of transactions. In a complex accounting system, it can be an extremely difficult task for the auditor to anticipate the possible errors that can occur and evaluate the effectiveness of the controls at detecting them. An accurate analysis must take into account the unique features of each company's business processes. To cope with this complexity and variability, the COMET system applies a model-based reasoning approach to the analysis of accounting systems and their controls.

CARMA: A Case-Based Rangeland Management Adviser

AI Magazine

CARMA is an advisory system for rangeland grasshopper infestations that demonstrates how AI technology can deliver expert advice to compensate for cutbacks in public services. CARMA uses two knowledge sources for the key task of predicting forage consumption by grasshoppers: (1) cases obtained by asking a group of experts to solve representative hypothetical problems and (2) a numeric model of rangeland ecosystems. These knowledge sources are integrated through the technique of model-based adaptation, in which case-based reasoning is used to find an approximate solution, and the model is used to adapt this approximate solution into a more precise solution. CARMA has been used in Wyoming counties since 1996. The combination of a simple interface, flexible control strategy, and integration of multiple knowledge sources makes CARMA accessible to inexperienced users and capable of producing advice comparable to that produced by human experts.

AI and Music: From Composition to Expressive Performance

AI Magazine

In this article, we first survey the three major types of computer music systems based on AI techniques: (1) compositional, (2) improvisational, and (3) performance systems. Representative examples of each type are briefly described. Then, we look in more detail at the problem of endowing the resulting performances with the expressiveness that characterizes human-generated music. This is one of the most challenging aspects of computer music that has been addressed just recently. The main problem in modeling expressiveness is to grasp the performer's "touch," that is, the knowledge applied when performing a score.

Playing with Cases: Rendering Expressive Music with Case-Based Reasoning

AI Magazine

Following a brief overview discussing why we prefer listening to expressive music instead of lifeless synthesized music, we examine a representative selection of well-known approaches to expressive computer music performance with an emphasis on AI-related approaches. In the main part of the paper we focus on the existing CBR approaches to the problem of synthesizing expressive music, and particularly on TempoExpress, a case-based reasoning system developed at our Institute, for applying musically acceptable tempo transformations to monophonic audio recordings of musical performances. Finally we briefly describe an ongoing extension of our previous work consisting on complementing audio information with information of the gestures of the musician. Music is played through our bodies, therefore capturing the gesture of the performer is a fundamental aspect that has to be taken into account in future expressive music renderings. This paper is based on the "2011 Robert S. Engelmore Memorial Lecture" given by the first author at AAAI/IAAI 2011.

Deep learning and case-based reasoning for predictive and adaptive traffic emergency management


An efficient traffic signal control system (TSCS) should not only be reactive to the current traffic but also be predictive by anticipating future traffic disturbances. In this study, we investigate the potential of using convolution neural network (CNN) in detecting emergency cases and forecasting events that can interrupt the traffic flow. Case-based reasoning (CBR) is then exploited to react to detected and forecasted events. We further develop an adapted Reinforcement Leaning (RL) algorithm in building and enhancing the case bases. The proposed system inherits the advantages of CNN, CBR, and RL, which allow detection, prediction, control, evaluation, and learning in a unified framework.

Acceleration of Large Margin Metric Learning for Nearest Neighbor Classification Using Triplet Mining and Stratified Sampling Machine Learning

Metric learning is one of the techniques in manifold learning with the goal of finding a projection subspace for increasing and decreasing the inter- and intra-class variances, respectively. Some of the metric learning methods are based on triplet learning with anchor-positive-negative triplets. Large margin metric learning for nearest neighbor classification is one of the fundamental methods to do this. Recently, Siamese networks have been introduced with the triplet loss. Many triplet mining methods have been developed for Siamese networks; however, these techniques have not been applied on the triplets of large margin metric learning for nearest neighbor classification. In this work, inspired by the mining methods for Siamese networks, we propose several triplet mining techniques for large margin metric learning. Moreover, a hierarchical approach is proposed, for acceleration and scalability of optimization, where triplets are selected by stratified sampling in hierarchical hyper-spheres. We analyze the proposed methods on three publicly available datasets, i.e., Fisher Iris, ORL faces, and MNIST datasets.

A Nearest Neighbor Characterization of Lebesgue Points in Metric Measure Spaces Machine Learning

The property of almost every point being a Lebesgue point has proven to be crucial for the consistency of several classification algorithms based on nearest neighbors. We characterize Lebesgue points in terms of a 1-Nearest Neighbor regression algorithm for pointwise estimation, fleshing out the role played by tie-breaking rules in the corresponding convergence problem. We then give an application of our results, proving the convergence of the risk of a large class of 1-Nearest Neighbor classification algorithms in general metric spaces where almost every point is a Lebesgue point.