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Building A User-Centric and Content-Driven Socialbot

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To build Sounding Board, we develop a system architecture that is capable of accommodating dialog strategies that we designed for socialbot conversations. The architecture consists of a multi-dimensional language understanding module for analyzing user utterances, a hierarchical dialog management framework for dialog context tracking and complex dialog control, and a language generation process that realizes the response plan and makes adjustments for speech synthesis. Additionally, we construct a new knowledge base to power the socialbot by collecting social chat content from a variety of sources. An important contribution of the system is the synergy between the knowledge base and the dialog management, i.e., the use of a graph structure to organize the knowledge base that makes dialog control very efficient in bringing related content to the discussion. Using the data collected from Sounding Board during the competition, we carry out in-depth analyses of socialbot conversations and user ratings which provide valuable insights in evaluation methods for socialbots. We additionally investigate a new approach for system evaluation and diagnosis that allows scoring individual dialog segments in the conversation. Finally, observing that socialbots suffer from the issue of shallow conversations about topics associated with unstructured data, we study the problem of enabling extended socialbot conversations grounded on a document. To bring together machine reading and dialog control techniques, a graph-based document representation is proposed, together with methods for automatically constructing the graph. Using the graph-based representation, dialog control can be carried out by retrieving nodes or moving along edges in the graph. To illustrate the usage, a mixed-initiative dialog strategy is designed for socialbot conversations on news articles.


An Approach for Time-aware Domain-based Social Influence Prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Online Social Networks(OSNs) have established virtual platforms enabling people to express their opinions, interests and thoughts in a variety of contexts and domains, allowing legitimate users as well as spammers and other untrustworthy users to publish and spread their content. Hence, the concept of social trust has attracted the attention of information processors/data scientists and information consumers/business firms. One of the main reasons for acquiring the value of Social Big Data (SBD) is to provide frameworks and methodologies using which the credibility of OSNs users can be evaluated. These approaches should be scalable to accommodate large-scale social data. Hence, there is a need for well comprehending of social trust to improve and expand the analysis process and inferring the credibility of SBD. Given the exposed environment's settings and fewer limitations related to OSNs, the medium allows legitimate and genuine users as well as spammers and other low trustworthy users to publish and spread their content. Hence, this paper presents an approach incorporates semantic analysis and machine learning modules to measure and predict users' trustworthiness in numerous domains in different time periods. The evaluation of the conducted experiment validates the applicability of the incorporated machine learning techniques to predict highly trustworthy domain-based users.


Knowledge-Enriched Transformer for Emotion Detection in Textual Conversations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Messages in human conversations inherently convey emotions. The task of detecting emotions in textual conversations leads to a wide range of applications such as opinion mining in social networks. However, enabling machines to analyze emotions in conversations is challenging, partly because humans often rely on the context and commonsense knowledge to express emotions. In this paper, we address these challenges by proposing a Knowledge-Enriched Transformer (KET), where contextual utterances are interpreted using hierarchical self-attention and external commonsense knowledge is dynamically leveraged using a context-aware affective graph attention mechanism. Experiments on multiple textual conversation datasets demonstrate that both context and commonsense knowledge are consistently beneficial to the emotion detection performance. In addition, the experimental results show that our KET model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on most of the tested datasets in F1 score.


Twitter Sentiment on Affordable Care Act using Score Embedding

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Mohsen Farhadloo, PhD John Molson Scool of Business, Concordia University mohsen.farhadloo@concordia.ca August 21, 2019 Abstract In this paper we introduce score embedding, a neural network based model to learn interpretable vector representations for words. Score embedding is a supervised method that takes advantage of the labeled training data and the neural network architecture to learn interpretable representations for words. Health care has been a controversial issue between political parties in the United States. In this paper we use the discussions on Twitter regarding different issues of affordable care act to identify the public opinion about the existing health care plans using the proposed score embedding. Our results indicate our approach effectively incorporates the sentiment information and outperforms or is at least comparable to the state-of-the-art methods and the negative sentiment towards "TrumpCare" was consistently greater than neutral and positive sentiment over time. 1 Introduction Sentiment analysis as a type of text categorization is the task of identifying the sentiment orientation of documents written in natural language which assigns one of the predefined sentiment categories into a whole document or pieces of the document such as phrases or sentences [23, 8]. Many studies used binary classification and reported high performance [18, 29, 24] and some studies have observed that the performance of the categorization reduces as the number of sentiment categories increases [2, 16, 3, 11]. Bag-Of-Words (BOW), a standard approach for text categorization, represents a document by a vector that indicates the words that appear in the document.


Effectiveness of Data-Driven Induction of Semantic Spaces and Traditional Classifiers for Sarcasm Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Irony and sarcasm are two complex linguistic phenomena that are widely used in everyday language and especially over the social media, but they represent two serious issues for automated text understanding. Many labelled corpora have been extracted from several sources to accomplish this task, and it seems that sarcasm is conveyed in different ways for different domains. Nonetheless, very little work has been done for comparing different methods among the available corpora. Furthermore, usually, each author collects and uses its own dataset to evaluate his own method. In this paper, we show that sarcasm detection can be tackled by applying classical machine learning algorithms to input texts sub-symbolically represented in a Latent Semantic space. The main consequence is that our studies establish both reference datasets and baselines for the sarcasm detection problem that could serve to the scientific community to test newly proposed methods.


Affect in Tweets Using Experts Model

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Estimating the intensity of emotion has gained significance as modern textual inputs in potential applications like social media, e-retail markets, psychology, advertisements etc., carry a lot of emotions, feelings, expressions along with its meaning. However, the approaches of traditional sentiment analysis primarily focuses on classifying the sentiment in general (positive or negative) or at an aspect level(very positive, low negative, etc.) and cannot exploit the intensity information. Moreover, automatically identifying emotions like anger, fear, joy, sadness, disgust etc., from text introduces challenging scenarios where single tweet may contain multiple emotions with different intensities and some emotions may even co-occur in some of the tweets. In this paper, we propose an architecture, Experts Model, inspired from the standard Mixture of Experts (MoE) model. The key idea here is each expert learns different sets of features from the feature vector which helps in better emotion detection from the tweet. We compared the results of our Experts Model with both baseline results and top five performers of SemEval-2018 Task-1, Affect in Tweets (AIT). The experimental results show that our proposed approach deals with the emotion detection problem and stands at top-5 results.


EvoMSA: A Multilingual Evolutionary Approach for Sentiment Analysis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Sentiment analysis (SA) is a task related to understanding people's feelings in written text; the starting point would be to identify the polarity level (positive, neutral or negative) of a given text, moving on to identify emotions or whether a text is humorous or not. This task has been the subject of several research competitions in a number of languages, e.g., English, Spanish, and Arabic, among others. In this contribution, we propose an SA system, namely EvoMSA, that unifies our participating systems in various SA competitions, making it domain independent and multilingual by processing text using only language-independent techniques. EvoMSA is a classifier, based on Genetic Programming, that works by combining the output of different text classifiers and text models to produce the final prediction. We analyze EvoMSA, with its parameters fixed, on different SA competitions to provide a global overview of its performance, and as the results show, EvoMSA is competitive obtaining top rankings in several SA competitions. Furthermore, we performed an analysis of EvoMSA's components to measure their contribution to the performance; the idea is to facilitate a practitioner or newcomer to implement a competitive SA classifier. Finally, it is worth to mention that EvoMSA is available as open source software.


Learning Domain-Sensitive and Sentiment-Aware Word Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Word embeddings have been widely used in sentiment classification because of their efficacy for semantic representations of words. Given reviews from different domains, some existing methods for word embeddings exploit sentiment information, but they cannot produce domain-sensitive embeddings. On the other hand, some other existing methods can generate domain-sensitive word embeddings, but they cannot distinguish words with similar contexts but opposite sentiment polarity. We propose a new method for learning domain-sensitive and sentiment-aware embeddings that simultaneously capture the information of sentiment semantics and domain sensitivity of individual words. Our method can automatically determine and produce domain-common embeddings and domain-specific embeddings. The differentiation of domain-common and domain-specific words enables the advantage of data augmentation of common semantics from multiple domains and capture the varied semantics of specific words from different domains at the same time. Experimental results show that our model provides an effective way to learn domain-sensitive and sentiment-aware word embeddings which benefit sentiment classification at both sentence level and lexicon term level.


ClassiNet -- Predicting Missing Features for Short-Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The fundamental problem in short-text classification is \emph{feature sparseness} -- the lack of feature overlap between a trained model and a test instance to be classified. We propose \emph{ClassiNet} -- a network of classifiers trained for predicting missing features in a given instance, to overcome the feature sparseness problem. Using a set of unlabeled training instances, we first learn binary classifiers as feature predictors for predicting whether a particular feature occurs in a given instance. Next, each feature predictor is represented as a vertex $v_i$ in the ClassiNet where a one-to-one correspondence exists between feature predictors and vertices. The weight of the directed edge $e_{ij}$ connecting a vertex $v_i$ to a vertex $v_j$ represents the conditional probability that given $v_i$ exists in an instance, $v_j$ also exists in the same instance. We show that ClassiNets generalize word co-occurrence graphs by considering implicit co-occurrences between features. We extract numerous features from the trained ClassiNet to overcome feature sparseness. In particular, for a given instance $\vec{x}$, we find similar features from ClassiNet that did not appear in $\vec{x}$, and append those features in the representation of $\vec{x}$. Moreover, we propose a method based on graph propagation to find features that are indirectly related to a given short-text. We evaluate ClassiNets on several benchmark datasets for short-text classification. Our experimental results show that by using ClassiNet, we can statistically significantly improve the accuracy in short-text classification tasks, without having to use any external resources such as thesauri for finding related features.


Any-gram Kernels for Sentence Classification: A Sentiment Analysis Case Study

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Any-gram kernels are a flexible and efficient way to employ bag-of-n-gram features when learning from textual data. They are also compatible with the use of word embeddings so that word similarities can be accounted for. While the original any-gram kernels are implemented on top of tree kernels, we propose a new approach which is independent of tree kernels and is more efficient. We also propose a more effective way to make use of word embeddings than the original any-gram formulation. When applied to the task of sentiment classification, our new formulation achieves significantly better performance.