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Video Captioning Using Weak Annotation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Video captioning has shown impressive progress in recent years. One key reason of the performance improvements made by existing methods lie in massive paired video-sentence data, but collecting such strong annotation, i.e., high-quality sentences, is time-consuming and laborious. It is the fact that there now exist an amazing number of videos with weak annotation that only contains semantic concepts such as actions and objects. In this paper, we investigate using weak annotation instead of strong annotation to train a video captioning model. To this end, we propose a progressive visual reasoning method that progressively generates fine sentences from weak annotations by inferring more semantic concepts and their dependency relationships for video captioning. To model concept relationships, we use dependency trees that are spanned by exploiting external knowledge from large sentence corpora. Through traversing the dependency trees, the sentences are generated to train the captioning model. Accordingly, we develop an iterative refinement algorithm that refines sentences via spanning dependency trees and fine-tunes the captioning model using the refined sentences in an alternative training manner. Experimental results demonstrate that our method using weak annotation is very competitive to the state-of-the-art methods using strong annotation.


Discrete Word Embedding for Logical Natural Language Understanding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose an unsupervised neural model for learning a discrete embedding of words. While being discrete, our embedding supports vector arithmetic operations similar to continuous embeddings by interpreting each word as a set of propositional statements describing a rule. The formulation of our vector arithmetic closely reflects the logical structure originating from the symbolic sequential decision making formalism (classical/STRIPS planning). Contrary to the conventional wisdom that discrete representation cannot perform well due to the lack of ability to capture the uncertainty, our representation is competitive against the continuous representations in several downstream tasks. We demonstrate that our embedding is directly compatible with the symbolic, classical planning solvers by performing a "paraphrasing" task. Due to the discrete/logical decision making in classical algorithms with deterministic (non-probabilistic) completeness, and also because it does not require additional training on the paraphrasing dataset, our system can negatively answer a paraphrasing query (inexistence of solutions), and can answer that only some approximate solutions exist -- A feature that is missing in the recent, huge, purely neural language models such as GPT-3.


COMPOSE: Cross-Modal Pseudo-Siamese Network for Patient Trial Matching

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Clinical trials play important roles in drug development but often suffer from expensive, inaccurate and insufficient patient recruitment. The availability of massive electronic health records (EHR) data and trial eligibility criteria (EC) bring a new opportunity to data driven patient recruitment. One key task named patient-trial matching is to find qualified patients for clinical trials given structured EHR and unstructured EC text (both inclusion and exclusion criteria). How to match complex EC text with longitudinal patient EHRs? How to embed many-to-many relationships between patients and trials? How to explicitly handle the difference between inclusion and exclusion criteria? In this paper, we proposed CrOss-Modal PseudO-SiamEse network (COMPOSE) to address these challenges for patient-trial matching. One path of the network encodes EC using convolutional highway network. The other path processes EHR with multi-granularity memory network that encodes structured patient records into multiple levels based on medical ontology. Using the EC embedding as query, COMPOSE performs attentional record alignment and thus enables dynamic patient-trial matching. COMPOSE also introduces a composite loss term to maximize the similarity between patient records and inclusion criteria while minimize the similarity to the exclusion criteria. Experiment results show COMPOSE can reach 98.0% AUC on patient-criteria matching and 83.7% accuracy on patient-trial matching, which leads 24.3% improvement over the best baseline on real-world patient-trial matching tasks.


Explainable Artificial Intelligence: a Systematic Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This has led to the development of a plethora of domain-dependent and context-specific methods for dealing with the interpretation of machine learning (ML) models and the formation of explanations for humans. Unfortunately, this trend is far from being over, with an abundance of knowledge in the field which is scattered and needs organisation. The goal of this article is to systematically review research works in the field of XAI and to try to define some boundaries in the field. From several hundreds of research articles focused on the concept of explainability, about 350 have been considered for review by using the following search methodology. In a first phase, Google Scholar was queried to find papers related to "explainable artificial intelligence", "explainable machine learning" and "interpretable machine learning". Subsequently, the bibliographic section of these articles was thoroughly examined to retrieve further relevant scientific studies. The first noticeable thing, as shown in figure 2 (a), is the distribution of the publication dates of selected research articles: sporadic in the 70s and 80s, receiving preliminary attention in the 90s, showing raising interest in 2000 and becoming a recognised body of knowledge after 2010. The first research concerned the development of an explanation-based system and its integration in a computer program designed to help doctors make diagnoses [3]. Some of the more recent papers focus on work devoted to the clustering of methods for explainability, motivating the need for organising the XAI literature [4, 5, 6].


Relational Learning Analysis of Social Politics using Knowledge Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Graphs (KGs) have gained considerable attention recently from both academia and industry. In fact, incorporating graph technology and the copious of various graph datasets have led the research community to build sophisticated graph analytics tools. Therefore, the application of KGs has extended to tackle a plethora of real-life problems in dissimilar domains. Despite the abundance of the currently proliferated generic KGs, there is a vital need to construct domain-specific KGs. Further, quality and credibility should be assimilated in the process of constructing and augmenting KGs, particularly those propagated from mixed-quality resources such as social media data. This paper presents a novel credibility domain-based KG Embedding framework. This framework involves capturing a fusion of data obtained from heterogeneous resources into a formal KG representation depicted by a domain ontology. The proposed approach makes use of various knowledge-based repositories to enrich the semantics of the textual contents, thereby facilitating the interoperability of information. The proposed framework also embodies a credibility module to ensure data quality and trustworthiness. The constructed KG is then embedded in a low-dimension semantically-continuous space using several embedding techniques. The utility of the constructed KG and its embeddings is demonstrated and substantiated on link prediction, clustering, and visualisation tasks.


Building A User-Centric and Content-Driven Socialbot

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To build Sounding Board, we develop a system architecture that is capable of accommodating dialog strategies that we designed for socialbot conversations. The architecture consists of a multi-dimensional language understanding module for analyzing user utterances, a hierarchical dialog management framework for dialog context tracking and complex dialog control, and a language generation process that realizes the response plan and makes adjustments for speech synthesis. Additionally, we construct a new knowledge base to power the socialbot by collecting social chat content from a variety of sources. An important contribution of the system is the synergy between the knowledge base and the dialog management, i.e., the use of a graph structure to organize the knowledge base that makes dialog control very efficient in bringing related content to the discussion. Using the data collected from Sounding Board during the competition, we carry out in-depth analyses of socialbot conversations and user ratings which provide valuable insights in evaluation methods for socialbots. We additionally investigate a new approach for system evaluation and diagnosis that allows scoring individual dialog segments in the conversation. Finally, observing that socialbots suffer from the issue of shallow conversations about topics associated with unstructured data, we study the problem of enabling extended socialbot conversations grounded on a document. To bring together machine reading and dialog control techniques, a graph-based document representation is proposed, together with methods for automatically constructing the graph. Using the graph-based representation, dialog control can be carried out by retrieving nodes or moving along edges in the graph. To illustrate the usage, a mixed-initiative dialog strategy is designed for socialbot conversations on news articles.


An Unsupervised Semantic Sentence Ranking Scheme for Text Documents

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents Semantic SentenceRank (SSR), an unsupervised scheme for automatically ranking sentences in a single document according to their relative importance. In particular, SSR extracts essential words and phrases from a text document, and uses semantic measures to construct, respectively, a semantic phrase graph over phrases and words, and a semantic sentence graph over sentences. It applies two variants of article-structure-biased PageRank to score phrases and words on the first graph and sentences on the second graph. It then combines these scores to generate the final score for each sentence. Finally, SSR solves a multi-objective optimization problem for ranking sentences based on their final scores and topic diversity through semantic subtopic clustering. An implementation of SSR that runs in quadratic time is presented, and it outperforms, on the SummBank benchmarks, each individual judge's ranking and compares favorably with the combined ranking of all judges.


Minimizing FLOPs to Learn Efficient Sparse Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep representation learning has become one of the most widely adopted approaches for visual search, recommendation, and identification. Retrieval of such representations from a large database is however computationally challenging. Approximate methods based on learning compact representations, have been widely explored for this problem, such as locality sensitive hashing, product quantization, and PCA. In this work, in contrast to learning compact representations, we propose to learn high dimensional and sparse representations that have similar representational capacity as dense embeddings while being more efficient due to sparse matrix multiplication operations which can be much faster than dense multiplication. Following the key insight that the number of operations decreases quadratically with the sparsity of embeddings provided the nonzero entries are distributed uniformly across dimensions, we propose a novel approach to learn such distributed sparse embeddings via the use of a carefully constructed regularization function that directly minimizes a continuous relaxation of the number of floating-point operations (FLOPs) incurred during retrieval. Our experiments show that our approach is competitive to the other baselines and yields a similar or better speed-vs-accuracy tradeoff on practical datasets 1 .


Learning Representations For Images With Hierarchical Labels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Image classification has been studied extensively but there has been limited work in the direction of using non-conventional, external guidance other than traditional image-label pairs to train such models. In this thesis we present a set of methods to leverage information about the semantic hierarchy induced by class labels. In the first part of the thesis, we inject label-hierarchy knowledge to an arbitrary classifier and empirically show that availability of such external semantic information in conjunction with the visual semantics from images boosts overall performance. Taking a step further in this direction, we model more explicitly the label-label and label-image interactions by using order-preserving embedding-based models, prevalent in natural language, and tailor them to the domain of computer vision to perform image classification. Although, contrasting in nature, both the CNN-classifiers injected with hierarchical information, and the embedding-based models outperform a hierarchy-agnostic model on the newly presented, real-world ETH Entomological Collection image dataset.


Information Leakage in Embedding Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Embeddings are functions that map raw input data to low-dimensional vector representations, while preserving important semantic information about the inputs. Pre-training embeddings on a large amount of unlabeled data and fine-tuning them for downstream tasks is now a de facto standard in achieving state of the art learning in many domains. We demonstrate that embeddings, in addition to encoding generic semantics, often also present a vector that leaks sensitive information about the input data. We develop three classes of attacks to systematically study information that might be leaked by embeddings. First, embedding vectors can be inverted to partially recover some of the input data. As an example, we show that our attacks on popular sentence embeddings recover between 50\%--70\% of the input words (F1 scores of 0.5--0.7). Second, embeddings may reveal sensitive attributes inherent in inputs and independent of the underlying semantic task at hand. Attributes such as authorship of text can be easily extracted by training an inference model on just a handful of labeled embedding vectors. Third, embedding models leak moderate amount of membership information for infrequent training data inputs. We extensively evaluate our attacks on various state-of-the-art embedding models in the text domain. We also propose and evaluate defenses that can prevent the leakage to some extent at a minor cost in utility.