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Extracting Synonyms from Bilingual Dictionaries

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present our progress in developing a novel algorithm to extract synonyms from bilingual dictionaries. Identification and usage of synonyms play a significant role in improving the performance of information access applications. The idea is to construct a translation graph from translation pairs, then to extract and consolidate cyclic paths to form bilingual sets of synonyms. The initial evaluation of this algorithm illustrates promising results in extracting Arabic-English bilingual synonyms. In the evaluation, we first converted the synsets in the Arabic WordNet into translation pairs (i.e., losing word-sense memberships). Next, we applied our algorithm to rebuild these synsets. We compared the original and extracted synsets obtaining an F-Measure of 82.3% and 82.1% for Arabic and English synsets extraction, respectively.


The Geometry of Distributed Representations for Better Alignment, Attenuated Bias, and Improved Interpretability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

High-dimensional representations for words, text, images, knowledge graphs and other structured data are commonly used in different paradigms of machine learning and data mining. These representations have different degrees of interpretability, with efficient distributed representations coming at the cost of the loss of feature to dimension mapping. This implies that there is obfuscation in the way concepts are captured in these embedding spaces. Its effects are seen in many representations and tasks, one particularly problematic one being in language representations where the societal biases, learned from underlying data, are captured and occluded in unknown dimensions and subspaces. As a result, invalid associations (such as different races and their association with a polar notion of good versus bad) are made and propagated by the representations, leading to unfair outcomes in different tasks where they are used. This work addresses some of these problems pertaining to the transparency and interpretability of such representations. A primary focus is the detection, quantification, and mitigation of socially biased associations in language representation.


PairRE: Knowledge Graph Embeddings via Paired Relation Vectors

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Distance based knowledge graph embedding methods show promising results on link prediction task, on which two topics have been widely studied: one is the ability to handle complex relations, such as N-to-1, 1-to-N and N-to-N, the other is to encode various relation patterns, such as symmetry/antisymmetry. However, the existing methods fail to solve these two problems at the same time, which leads to unsatisfactory results. To mitigate this problem, we propose PairRE, a model with improved expressiveness and low computational requirement. PairRE represents each relation with paired vectors, where these paired vectors project connected two entities to relation specific locations. Beyond its ability to solve the aforementioned two problems, PairRE is advantageous to represent subrelation as it can capture both the similarities and differences of subrelations effectively. Given simple constraints on relation representations, PairRE can be the first model that is capable of encoding symmetry/antisymmetry, inverse, composition and subrelation relations. Experiments on link prediction benchmarks show PairRE can achieve either state-of-the-art or highly competitive performances. In addition, PairRE has shown encouraging results for encoding subrelation.


Generating Knowledge Graphs by Employing Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning Techniques within the Scholarly Domain

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The continuous growth of scientific literature brings innovations and, at the same time, raises new challenges. One of them is related to the fact that its analysis has become difficult due to the high volume of published papers for which manual effort for annotations and management is required. Novel technological infrastructures are needed to help researchers, research policy makers, and companies to time-efficiently browse, analyse, and forecast scientific research. Knowledge graphs i.e., large networks of entities and relationships, have proved to be effective solution in this space. Scientific knowledge graphs focus on the scholarly domain and typically contain metadata describing research publications such as authors, venues, organizations, research topics, and citations. However, the current generation of knowledge graphs lacks of an explicit representation of the knowledge presented in the research papers. As such, in this paper, we present a new architecture that takes advantage of Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning methods for extracting entities and relationships from research publications and integrates them in a large-scale knowledge graph. Within this research work, we i) tackle the challenge of knowledge extraction by employing several state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing and Text Mining tools, ii) describe an approach for integrating entities and relationships generated by these tools, iii) show the advantage of such an hybrid system over alternative approaches, and vi) as a chosen use case, we generated a scientific knowledge graph including 109,105 triples, extracted from 26,827 abstracts of papers within the Semantic Web domain. As our approach is general and can be applied to any domain, we expect that it can facilitate the management, analysis, dissemination, and processing of scientific knowledge.


A Survey of Embedding Space Alignment Methods for Language and Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The purpose of this survey is to explore the core techniques and categorizations of methods for aligning low-dimensional embedding spaces. Projecting sparse, high-dimensional data sets into compact, lower-dimensional spaces allows not only for a significant reduction in storage space, but also builds dense representations with many applications. These embedding spaces have become a staple in representation learning ever since their heralded application to natural language in a technique called word2vec, and have replaced traditional machine learning features as easy-to-build, high-quality representations of the source objects. There has been a wealth of study around techniques for embedding objects, such as images, natural language and knowledge graphs, and many research agendas focused on mapping one embedding space to another, either for the purpose of aligning and unifying to a common space, applications to joint downstream tasks or ease of transfer learning. In order to fully leverage these dense representations and translate them across domains and problem spaces, techniques for establishing alignments between them must be developed and understood.


Joint Semantics and Data-Driven Path Representation for Knowledge Graph Inference

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Inference on a large-scale knowledge graph (KG) is of great importance for KG applications like question answering. The path-based reasoning models can leverage much information over paths other than pure triples in the KG, which face several challenges: all the existing path-based methods are data-driven, lacking explainability for path representation. Besides, some methods either consider only relational paths or ignore the heterogeneity between entities and relations both contained in paths, which cannot capture the rich semantics of paths well. To address the above challenges, in this work, we propose a novel joint semantics and data-driven path representation that balances explainability and generalization in the framework of KG embedding. More specifically, we inject horn rules to obtain the condensed paths by the transparent and explainable path composition procedure. The entity converter is designed to transform the entities along paths into the representations in the semantic level similar to relations for reducing the heterogeneity between entities and relations, in which the KGs both with and without type information are considered. Our proposed model is evaluated on two classes of tasks: link prediction and path query answering task. The experimental results show that it has a significant performance gain over several different state-of-the-art baselines.


TabEAno: Table to Knowledge Graph Entity Annotation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the Open Data era, a large number of table resources have been made available on the Web and data portals. However, it is difficult to directly utilize such data due to the ambiguity of entities, name variations, heterogeneous schema, missing, or incomplete metadata. To address these issues, we propose a novel approach, namely TabEAno, to semantically annotate table rows toward knowledge graph entities. Specifically, we introduce a "two-cells" lookup strategy bases on the assumption that there is an existing logical relation occurring in the knowledge graph between the two closed cells in the same row of the table. Despite the simplicity of the approach, TabEAno outperforms the state of the art approaches in the two standard datasets e.g, T2D, Limaye with, and in the large-scale Wikipedia tables dataset.


Machine Knowledge: Creation and Curation of Comprehensive Knowledge Bases

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Equipping machines with comprehensive knowledge of the world's entities and their relationships has been a long-standing goal of AI. Over the last decade, large-scale knowledge bases, also known as knowledge graphs, have been automatically constructed from web contents and text sources, and have become a key asset for search engines. This machine knowledge can be harnessed to semantically interpret textual phrases in news, social media and web tables, and contributes to question answering, natural language processing and data analytics. This article surveys fundamental concepts and practical methods for creating and curating large knowledge bases. It covers models and methods for discovering and canonicalizing entities and their semantic types and organizing them into clean taxonomies. On top of this, the article discusses the automatic extraction of entity-centric properties. To support the long-term life-cycle and the quality assurance of machine knowledge, the article presents methods for constructing open schemas and for knowledge curation. Case studies on academic projects and industrial knowledge graphs complement the survey of concepts and methods.


PNEL: Pointer Network based End-To-End Entity Linking over Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Question Answering systems are generally modelled as a pipeline consisting of a sequence of steps. In such a pipeline, Entity Linking (EL) is often the first step. Several EL models first perform span detection and then entity disambiguation. In such models errors from the span detection phase cascade to later steps and result in a drop of overall accuracy. Moreover, lack of gold entity spans in training data is a limiting factor for span detector training. Hence the movement towards end-to-end EL models began where no separate span detection step is involved. In this work we present a novel approach to end-to-end EL by applying the popular Pointer Network model, which achieves competitive performance. We demonstrate this in our evaluation over three datasets on the Wikidata Knowledge Graph.


VisualSem: a high-quality knowledge graph for vision and language

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We argue that the next frontier in natural language understanding (NLU) and generation (NLG) will include models that can efficiently access external structured knowledge repositories. In order to support the development of such models, we release the VisualSem knowledge graph (KG) which includes nodes with multilingual glosses and multiple illustrative images and visually relevant relations. We also release a neural multi-modal retrieval model that can use images or sentences as inputs and retrieves entities in the KG. This multi-modal retrieval model can be integrated into any (neural network) model pipeline and we encourage the research community to use VisualSem for data augmentation and/or as a source of grounding, among other possible uses. VisualSem as well as the multi-modal retrieval model are publicly available and can be downloaded in: https://github.com/iacercalixto/visualsem.