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TAG: Toward Accurate Social Media Content Tagging with a Concept Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Although conceptualization has been widely studied in semantics and knowledge representation, it is still challenging to find the most accurate concept phrases to characterize the main idea of a text snippet on the fast-growing social media. This is partly attributed to the fact that most knowledge bases contain general terms of the world, such as trees and cars, which do not have the defining power or are not interesting enough to social media app users. Another reason is that the intricacy of natural language allows the use of tense, negation and grammar to change the logic or emphasis of language, thus conveying completely different meanings. In this paper, we present TAG, a high-quality concept matching dataset consisting of 10,000 labeled pairs of fine-grained concepts and web-styled natural language sentences, mined from the open-domain social media. The concepts we consider represent the trending interests of online users. Associated with TAG is a concept graph of these fine-grained concepts and entities to provide the structural context information. We evaluate a wide range of popular neural text matching models as well as pre-trained language models on TAG, and point out their insufficiency to tag social media content with the most appropriate concept. We further propose a novel graph-graph matching method that demonstrates superior abstraction and generalization performance by better utilizing both the structural context in the concept graph and logic interactions between semantic units in the sentence via syntactic dependency parsing. We open-source both the TAG dataset and the proposed methods to facilitate further research.


On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.