Plotting

Machine Translation: Overviews


Crossing the Conversational Chasm: A Primer on Natural Language Processing for Multilingual Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In task-oriented dialogue (ToD), a user holds a conversation with an artificial agent  with the aim of completing a concrete task. Although this technology represents one of  the central objectives of AI and has been the focus of ever more intense research and  development efforts, it is currently limited to a few narrow domains (e.g., food ordering,  ticket booking) and a handful of languages (e.g., English, Chinese). This work provides an  extensive overview of existing methods and resources in multilingual ToD as an entry point  to this exciting and emerging field. We find that the most critical factor preventing the  creation of truly multilingual ToD systems is the lack of datasets in most languages for  both training and evaluation. In fact, acquiring annotations or human feedback for each  component of modular systems or for data-hungry end-to-end systems is expensive and  tedious. Hence, state-of-the-art approaches to multilingual ToD mostly rely on (zero- or  few-shot) cross-lingual transfer from resource-rich languages (almost exclusively English),  either by means of (i) machine translation or (ii) multilingual representations. These  approaches are currently viable only for typologically similar languages and languages with  parallel / monolingual corpora available. On the other hand, their effectiveness beyond these  boundaries is doubtful or hard to assess due to the lack of linguistically diverse benchmarks  (especially for natural language generation and end-to-end evaluation). To overcome this  limitation, we draw parallels between components of the ToD pipeline and other NLP tasks,  which can inspire solutions for learning in low-resource scenarios. Finally, we list additional  challenges that multilinguality poses for related areas (such as speech, fluency in generated  text, and human-centred evaluation), and indicate future directions that hold promise to  further expand language coverage and dialogue capabilities of current ToD systems. 


Neural Natural Language Generation: A Survey on Multilinguality, Multimodality, Controllability and Learning

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Developing artificial learning systems that can understand and generate natural language has been one of the long-standing goals of artificial intelligence. Recent decades have witnessed an impressive progress on both of these problems, giving rise to a new family of approaches. Especially, the advances in deep learning over the past couple of years have led to neural approaches to natural language generation (NLG). These methods combine generative language learning techniques with neural-networks based frameworks. With a wide range of applications in natural language processing, neural NLG (NNLG) is a new and fast growing field of research. In this state-of-the-art report, we investigate the recent developments and applications of NNLG in its full extent from a multidimensional view, covering critical perspectives such as multimodality, multilinguality, controllability and learning strategies. We summarize the fundamental building blocks of NNLG approaches from these aspects and provide detailed reviews of commonly used preprocessing steps and basic neural architectures. This report also focuses on the seminal applications of these NNLG models such as machine translation, description generation, automatic speech recognition, abstractive summarization, text simplification, question answering and generation, and dialogue generation. Finally, we conclude with a thorough discussion of the described frameworks by pointing out some open research directions.


A survey on multi-objective hyperparameter optimization algorithms for Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hyperparameter optimization (HPO) is a necessary step to ensure the best possible performance of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. Several methods have been developed to perform HPO; most of these are focused on optimizing one performance measure (usually an error-based measure), and the literature on such single-objective HPO problems is vast. Recently, though, algorithms have appeared which focus on optimizing multiple conflicting objectives simultaneously. This article presents a systematic survey of the literature published between 2014 and 2020 on multi-objective HPO algorithms, distinguishing between metaheuristic-based algorithms, metamodel-based algorithms, and approaches using a mixture of both. We also discuss the quality metrics used to compare multi-objective HPO procedures and present future research directions.


NL-Augmenter: A Framework for Task-Sensitive Natural Language Augmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Data augmentation is an important component in the robustness evaluation of models in natural language processing (NLP) and in enhancing the diversity of the data they are trained on. In this paper, we present NL-Augmenter, a new participatory Python-based natural language augmentation framework which supports the creation of both transformations (modifications to the data) and filters (data splits according to specific features). We describe the framework and an initial set of 117 transformations and 23 filters for a variety of natural language tasks. We demonstrate the efficacy of NL-Augmenter by using several of its transformations to analyze the robustness of popular natural language models. The infrastructure, datacards and robustness analysis results are available publicly on the NL-Augmenter repository (\url{https://github.com/GEM-benchmark/NL-Augmenter}).


AI and the Everything in the Whole Wide World Benchmark

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is a tendency across different subfields in AI to valorize a small collection of influential benchmarks. These benchmarks operate as stand-ins for a range of anointed common problems that are frequently framed as foundational milestones on the path towards flexible and generalizable AI systems. State-of-the-art performance on these benchmarks is widely understood as indicative of progress towards these long-term goals. In this position paper, we explore the limits of such benchmarks in order to reveal the construct validity issues in their framing as the functionally "general" broad measures of progress they are set up to be.


Natural Language Processing for Smart Healthcare

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Smart healthcare has achieved significant progress in recent years. Emerging artificial intelligence (AI) technologies enable various smart applications across various healthcare scenarios. As an essential technology powered by AI, natural language processing (NLP) plays a key role in smart healthcare due to its capability of analysing and understanding human language. In this work we review existing studies that concern NLP for smart healthcare from the perspectives of technique and application. We focus on feature extraction and modelling for various NLP tasks encountered in smart healthcare from a technical point of view. In the context of smart healthcare applications employing NLP techniques, the elaboration largely attends to representative smart healthcare scenarios, including clinical practice, hospital management, personal care, public health, and drug development. We further discuss the limitations of current works and identify the directions for future works.



Multi-Task Learning in Natural Language Processing: An Overview

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep learning approaches have achieved great success in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). However, deep neural models often suffer from overfitting and data scarcity problems that are pervasive in NLP tasks. In recent years, Multi-Task Learning (MTL), which can leverage useful information of related tasks to achieve simultaneous performance improvement on multiple related tasks, has been used to handle these problems. In this paper, we give an overview of the use of MTL in NLP tasks. We first review MTL architectures used in NLP tasks and categorize them into four classes, including the parallel architecture, hierarchical architecture, modular architecture, and generative adversarial architecture. Then we present optimization techniques on loss construction, data sampling, and task scheduling to properly train a multi-task model. After presenting applications of MTL in a variety of NLP tasks, we introduce some benchmark datasets. Finally, we make a conclusion and discuss several possible research directions in this field.


An Exploratory Study on Utilising the Web of Linked Data for Product Data Mining

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Linked Open Data practice has led to a significant growth of structured data on the Web in the last decade. Such structured data describe real-world entities in a machine-readable way, and have created an unprecedented opportunity for research in the field of Natural Language Processing. However, there is a lack of studies on how such data can be used, for what kind of tasks, and to what extent they can be useful for these tasks. This work focuses on the e-commerce domain to explore methods of utilising such structured data to create language resources that may be used for product classification and linking. We process billions of structured data points in the form of RDF n-quads, to create multi-million words of product-related corpora that are later used in three different ways for creating of language resources: training word embedding models, continued pre-training of BERT-like language models, and training Machine Translation models that are used as a proxy to generate product-related keywords. Our evaluation on an extensive set of benchmarks shows word embeddings to be the most reliable and consistent method to improve the accuracy on both tasks (with up to 6.9 percentage points in macro-average F1 on some datasets). The other two methods however, are not as useful. Our analysis shows that this could be due to a number of reasons, including the biased domain representation in the structured data and lack of vocabulary coverage. We share our datasets and discuss how our lessons learned could be taken forward to inform future research in this direction.


Trends in Integration of Vision and Language Research: A Survey of Tasks, Datasets, and Methods

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its applications has seen unprecedented growth in the last few years. This success can be partly attributed to the advancements made in the sub-fields of AI such as machine learning, computer vision, and natural language processing. Much of the growth in these fields has been made possible with deep learning, a sub-area of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks. This has created significant interest in the integration of vision and language. In this survey, we focus on ten prominent tasks that integrate language and vision by discussing their problem formulation, methods, existing datasets, evaluation measures, and compare the results obtained with corresponding state-of-the-art methods. Our efforts go beyond earlier surveys which are either task-specific or concentrate only on one type of visual content, i.e., image or video. Furthermore, we also provide some potential future directions in this field of research with an anticipation that this survey stimulates innovative thoughts and ideas to address the existing challenges and build new applications.