Machine Translation: Instructional Materials

Machine Learning Communities: Q1 '22 highlights and achievements


Let's explore highlights and accomplishments of vast Google Machine Learning communities over the first quarter of the year! We are enthusiastic and grateful about all the activities that the communities across the globe do. ML Olympiad is an associated Kaggle Community Competitions hosted by Machine Learning Google Developers Experts (ML GDEs) or TensorFlow User Groups (TFUGs) sponsored by Google. The first round was hosted from January to March, suggesting solving critical problems of our time. TFUG organizer Ali Mustufa Shaikh (TFUG Mumbai) and Rishit Dagli won the TensorFlow Community Spotlight award (paper and code).

The Transformer Model


We have already familiarized ourselves with the concept of self-attention as implemented by the Transformer attention mechanism for neural machine translation. We will now be shifting our focus on the details of the Transformer architecture itself, to discover how self-attention can be implemented without relying on the use of recurrence and convolutions. In this tutorial, you will discover the network architecture of the Transformer model. The Transformer Model Photo by Samule Sun, some rights reserved. The Transformer architecture follows an encoder-decoder structure, but does not rely on recurrence and convolutions in order to generate an output.

Could AI Democratise Education? Socio-Technical Imaginaries of an EdTech Revolution Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Education has been said to have the potential for building more personalised curricula, as well as democratising education worldwide and creating a Renaissance of new ways of teaching and learning. Millions of students are already starting to benefit from the use of these technologies, but millions more around the world are not. If this trend continues, the first delivery of AI in Education could be greater educational inequality, along with a global misallocation of educational resources motivated by the current technological determinism narrative. In this paper, we focus on speculating and posing questions around the future of AI in Education, with the aim of starting the pressing conversation that would set the right foundations for the new generation of education that is permeated by technology. This paper starts by synthesising how AI might change how we learn and teach, focusing specifically on the case of personalised learning companions, and then move to discuss some socio-technical features that will be crucial for avoiding the perils of these AI systems worldwide (and perhaps ensuring their success). This paper also discusses the potential of using AI together with free, participatory and democratic resources, such as Wikipedia, Open Educational Resources and open-source tools. We also emphasise the need for collectively designing human-centered, transparent, interactive and collaborative AI-based algorithms that empower and give complete agency to stakeholders, as well as support new emerging pedagogies. Finally, we ask what would it take for this educational revolution to provide egalitarian and empowering access to education, beyond any political, cultural, language, geographical and learning ability barriers.

Association Mining for Machine Learning


Association Rules is one of the very important concepts of machine learning being used in market basket analysis. This course covers the working Principle of Association Mining and its various concepts like Support, Confidence, and Life in a very simplified manner. All of these algorithms has been explained by taking working examples. Parteek Bhatia is Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Former Associate Dean of Student Affairs at Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala. At present he is on sabbatical at Tel Aviv University, Israel and acting as Visiting Professor at LAMBDA Lab, TAU.

Trends in Integration of Vision and Language Research: A Survey of Tasks, Datasets, and Methods

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its applications has seen unprecedented growth in the last few years. This success can be partly attributed to the advancements made in the sub-fields of AI such as machine learning, computer vision, and natural language processing. Much of the growth in these fields has been made possible with deep learning, a sub-area of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks. This has created significant interest in the integration of vision and language. In this survey, we focus on ten prominent tasks that integrate language and vision by discussing their problem formulation, methods, existing datasets, evaluation measures, and compare the results obtained with corresponding state-of-the-art methods. Our efforts go beyond earlier surveys which are either task-specific or concentrate only on one type of visual content, i.e., image or video. Furthermore, we also provide some potential future directions in this field of research with an anticipation that this survey stimulates innovative thoughts and ideas to address the existing challenges and build new applications.

On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.

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Scaling Ensemble Distribution Distillation to Many Classes with Proxy Targets Artificial Intelligence

Ensembles of machine learning models yield improved system performance as well as robust and interpretable uncertainty estimates; however, their inference costs may often be prohibitively high. Ensemble Distribution Distillation is an approach that allows a single model to efficiently capture both the predictive performance and uncertainty estimates of an ensemble. For classification, this is achieved by training a Dirichlet distribution over the ensemble members' output distributions via the maximum likelihood criterion. Although theoretically principled, this criterion exhibits poor convergence when applied to large-scale tasks where the number of classes is very high. In our work, we analyze this effect and show that for the Dirichlet log-likelihood criterion classes with low probability induce larger gradients than high-probability classes. This forces the model to focus on the distribution of the ensemble tail-class probabilities. We propose a new training objective which minimizes the reverse KL-divergence to a Proxy-Dirichlet target derived from the ensemble. This loss resolves the gradient issues of Ensemble Distribution Distillation, as we demonstrate both theoretically and empirically on the ImageNet and WMT17 En-De datasets containing 1000 and 40,000 classes, respectively.

Continual Lifelong Learning in Natural Language Processing: A Survey Artificial Intelligence

Continual learning (CL) aims to enable information systems to learn from a continuous data stream across time. However, it is difficult for existing deep learning architectures to learn a new task without largely forgetting previously acquired knowledge. Furthermore, CL is particularly challenging for language learning, as natural language is ambiguous: it is discrete, compositional, and its meaning is context-dependent. In this work, we look at the problem of CL through the lens of various NLP tasks. Our survey discusses major challenges in CL and current methods applied in neural network models. We also provide a critical review of the existing CL evaluation methods and datasets in NLP.

Empowering Things with Intelligence: A Survey of the Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Artificial Intelligence of Things Artificial Intelligence

In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, billions of sensors and devices collect and process data from the environment, transmit them to cloud centers, and receive feedback via the internet for connectivity and perception. However, transmitting massive amounts of heterogeneous data, perceiving complex environments from these data, and then making smart decisions in a timely manner are difficult. Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, is now a proven success in various areas including computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing. AI introduced into the IoT heralds the era of artificial intelligence of things (AIoT). This paper presents a comprehensive survey on AIoT to show how AI can empower the IoT to make it faster, smarter, greener, and safer. Specifically, we briefly present the AIoT architecture in the context of cloud computing, fog computing, and edge computing. Then, we present progress in AI research for IoT from four perspectives: perceiving, learning, reasoning, and behaving. Next, we summarize some promising applications of AIoT that are likely to profoundly reshape our world. Finally, we highlight the challenges facing AIoT and some potential research opportunities.