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Computer Vision - Richard Szeliski

#artificialintelligence

As humans, we perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world around us with apparent ease. Think of how vivid the three-dimensional percept is when you look at a vase of flowers sitting on the table next to you. You can tell the shape and translucency of each petal through the subtle patterns of light and shading that play across its surface and effortlessly segment each flower from the background of the scene (Figure 1.1). Looking at a framed group por- trait, you can easily count (and name) all of the people in the picture and even guess at their emotions from their facial appearance. Perceptual psychologists have spent decades trying to understand how the visual system works and, even though they can devise optical illusions1 to tease apart some of its principles (Figure 1.3), a complete solution to this puzzle remains elusive (Marr 1982; Palmer 1999; Livingstone 2008).


Trusted Approximate Policy Iteration with Bisimulation Metrics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Bisimulation metrics define a distance measure between states of a Markov decision process (MDP) based on a comparison of reward sequences. Due to this property they provide theoretical guarantees in value function approximation. In this work we first prove that bisimulation metrics can be defined via any $p$-Wasserstein metric for $p\geq 1$. Then we describe an approximate policy iteration (API) procedure that uses $\epsilon$-aggregation with $\pi$-bisimulation and prove performance bounds for continuous state spaces. We bound the difference between $\pi$-bisimulation metrics in terms of the change in the policies themselves. Based on these theoretical results, we design an API($\alpha$) procedure that employs conservative policy updates and enjoys better performance bounds than the naive API approach. In addition, we propose a novel trust region approach which circumvents the requirement to explicitly solve a constrained optimization problem. Finally, we provide experimental evidence of improved stability compared to non-conservative alternatives in simulated continuous control.


A Survey of Methods for Automated Algorithm Configuration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.


Flow-based Algorithms for Improving Clusters: A Unifying Framework, Software, and Performance

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Clustering points in a vector space or nodes in a graph is a ubiquitous primitive in statistical data analysis, and it is commonly used for exploratory data analysis. In practice, it is often of interest to "refine" or "improve" a given cluster that has been obtained by some other method. In this survey, we focus on principled algorithms for this cluster improvement problem. Many such cluster improvement algorithms are flow-based methods, by which we mean that operationally they require the solution of a sequence of maximum flow problems on a (typically implicitly) modified data graph. These cluster improvement algorithms are powerful, both in theory and in practice, but they have not been widely adopted for problems such as community detection, local graph clustering, semi-supervised learning, etc. Possible reasons for this are: the steep learning curve for these algorithms; the lack of efficient and easy to use software; and the lack of detailed numerical experiments on real-world data that demonstrate their usefulness. Our objective here is to address these issues. To do so, we guide the reader through the whole process of understanding how to implement and apply these powerful algorithms. We present a unifying fractional programming optimization framework that permits us to distill, in a simple way, the crucial components of all these algorithms. It also makes apparent similarities and differences between related methods. Viewing these cluster improvement algorithms via a fractional programming framework suggests directions for future algorithm development. Finally, we develop efficient implementations of these algorithms in our LocalGraphClustering Python package, and we perform extensive numerical experiments to demonstrate the performance of these methods on social networks and image-based data graphs.


Submodularity In Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this manuscript, we offer a gentle review of submodularity and supermodularity and their properties. We offer a plethora of submodular definitions; a full description of a number of example submodular functions and their generalizations; example discrete constraints; a discussion of basic algorithms for maximization, minimization, and other operations; a brief overview of continuous submodular extensions; and some historical applications. We then turn to how submodularity is useful in machine learning and artificial intelligence. This includes summarization, and we offer a complete account of the differences between and commonalities amongst sketching, coresets, extractive and abstractive summarization in NLP, data distillation and condensation, and data subset selection and feature selection. We discuss a variety of ways to produce a submodular function useful for machine learning, including heuristic hand-crafting, learning or approximately learning a submodular function or aspects thereof, and some advantages of the use of a submodular function as a coreset producer. We discuss submodular combinatorial information functions, and how submodularity is useful for clustering, data partitioning, parallel machine learning, active and semi-supervised learning, probabilistic modeling, and structured norms and loss functions.


Towards Personalized and Human-in-the-Loop Document Summarization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.


SCOBO: Sparsity-Aware Comparison Oracle Based Optimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study derivative-free optimization for convex functions where we further assume that function evaluations are unavailable. Instead, one only has access to a comparison oracle, which, given two points $x$ and $y$, and returns a single bit of information indicating which point has larger function value, $f(x)$ or $f(y)$, with some probability of being incorrect. This probability may be constant or it may depend on $|f(x)-f(y)|$. Previous algorithms for this problem have been hampered by a query complexity which is polynomially dependent on the problem dimension, $d$. We propose a novel algorithm that breaks this dependence: it has query complexity only logarithmically dependent on $d$ if the function in addition has low dimensional structure that can be exploited. Numerical experiments on synthetic data and the MuJoCo dataset show that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods for comparison based optimization, and is even competitive with other derivative-free algorithms that require explicit function evaluations.


Optimizing Revenue while showing Relevant Assortments at Scale

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Scalable real-time assortment optimization has become essential in e-commerce operations due to the need for personalization and the availability of a large variety of items. While this can be done when there are simplistic assortment choices to be made, imposing constraints on the collection of feasible assortments gives more flexibility to incorporate insights of store-managers and historically well-performing assortments. We design fast and flexible algorithms based on variations of binary search that find the revenue of the (approximately) optimal assortment. In particular, we revisit the problem of large-scale assortment optimization under the multinomial logit choice model without any assumptions on the structure of the feasible assortments. We speed up the comparisons steps using novel vector space embeddings, based on advances in the fields of information retrieval and machine learning. For an arbitrary collection of assortments, our algorithms can find a solution in time that is sub-linear in the number of assortments and for the simpler case of cardinality constraints - linear in the number of items (existing methods are quadratic or worse). Empirical validations using the Billion Prices dataset and several retail transaction datasets show that our algorithms are competitive even when the number of items is $\sim 10^5$ ($100$x larger instances than previously studied).


Xeggora: Exploiting Immune-to-Evidence Symmetries with Full Aggregation in Statistical Relational Models

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We present improvements in maximum a-posteriori inference for Markov Logic, a widely used SRL formalism. Inferring the most probable world for Markov Logic is NP-hard in general. Several approaches, including Cutting Plane Aggregation (CPA), perform inference through translation to Integer Linear Programs. Aggregation exploits context-specific symmetries independently of evidence and reduces the size of the program. We illustrate much more symmetries occurring in long ground clauses that are ignored by CPA and can be exploited by higher-order aggregations. We propose Full-Constraint-Aggregation, a superior algorithm to CPA which exploits the ignored symmetries via a lifted translation method and some constraint relaxations. RDBMS and heuristic techniques are involved to improve the overall performance. We introduce Xeggora as an evolutionary extension of RockIt, the query engine that uses CPA. Xeggora evaluation on real-world benchmarks shows progress in efficiency compared to RockIt especially for models with long formulas.


Automated Machine Learning: State-of-The-Art and Open Challenges

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With the continuous and vast increase in the amount of data in our digital world, it has been acknowledged that the number of knowledgeable data scientists can not scale to address these challenges. Thus, there was a crucial need for automating the process of building good machine learning models. In the last few years, several techniques and frameworks have been introduced to tackle the challenge of automating the process of Combined Algorithm Selection and Hyper-parameter tuning (CASH) in the machine learning domain. The main aim of these techniques is to reduce the role of the human in the loop and fill the gap for non-expert machine learning users by playing the role of the domain expert. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey for the state-of-the-art efforts in tackling the CASH problem. In addition, we highlight the research work of automating the other steps of the full complex machine learning pipeline (AutoML) from data understanding till model deployment. Furthermore, we provide comprehensive coverage for the various tools and frameworks that have been introduced in this domain. Finally, we discuss some of the research directions and open challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve the vision and goals of the AutoML process.