Our accustomed systems of retrieving particular bits of information no longer fill the needs of many people. Searching traditional indexes of print publications has been aided by computerized databases, but still usually requires time-consuming serial searching of one database after the other, and then moving on to other methods of searching for internet sources. And what if the information being sought is a sound byte? A video clip? Yesterday's e-mail exchange between respected scientists? Artificial intelligence may hold the key to information retrieval in an age where widely different formats contain the information being sought, and the universe of knowledge is simply too big and growing too rapidly for successful searching to proceed at a human's slow speed.
There are a vast number of different types of data preparation techniques that could be used on a predictive modeling project. In some cases, the distribution of the data or the requirements of a machine learning model may suggest the data preparation needed, although this is rarely the case given the complexity and high-dimensionality of the data, the ever-increasing parade of new machine learning algorithms and limited, although human, limitations of the practitioner. Instead, data preparation can be treated as another hyperparameter to tune as part of the modeling pipeline. This raises the question of how to know what data preparation methods to consider in the search, which can feel overwhelming to experts and beginners alike. The solution is to think about the vast field of data preparation in a structured way and systematically evaluate data preparation techniques based on their effect on the raw data.
Digitization is penetrating more and more areas of life. Tasks are increasingly being completed digitally, and are therefore not only fulfilled faster, more efficiently but also more purposefully and successfully. The rapid developments in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years have played a major role in this, as they brought up many helpful approaches to build on. At the same time, the eyes, their movements, and the meaning of these movements are being progressively researched. The combination of these developments has led to exciting approaches. In this dissertation, I present some of these approaches which I worked on during my Ph.D. First, I provide insight into the development of models that use artificial intelligence to connect eye movements with visual expertise. This is demonstrated for two domains or rather groups of people: athletes in decision-making actions and surgeons in arthroscopic procedures. The resulting models can be considered as digital diagnostic models for automatic expertise recognition. Furthermore, I show approaches that investigate the transferability of eye movement patterns to different expertise domains and subsequently, important aspects of techniques for generalization. Finally, I address the temporal detection of confusion based on eye movement data. The results suggest the use of the resulting model as a clock signal for possible digital assistance options in the training of young professionals. An interesting aspect of my research is that I was able to draw on very valuable data from DFB youth elite athletes as well as on long-standing experts in arthroscopy. In particular, the work with the DFB data attracted the interest of radio and print media, namely DeutschlandFunk Nova and SWR DasDing. All resulting articles presented here have been published in internationally renowned journals or at conferences.
Spatial-query-by-sketch is an intuitive tool to explore human spatial knowledge about geographic environments and to support communication with scene database queries. However, traditional sketch-based spatial search methods perform insufficiently due to their inability to find hidden multi-scale map features from mental sketches. In this research, we propose a deep convolutional neural network, namely Deep Spatial Scene Network (DeepSSN), to better assess the spatial scene similarity. In DeepSSN, a triplet loss function is designed as a comprehensive distance metric to support the similarity assessment. A positive and negative example mining strategy using qualitative constraint networks in spatial reasoning is designed to ensure a consistently increasing distinction of triplets during the training process. Moreover, we develop a prototype spatial scene search system using the proposed DeepSSN, in which the users input spatial query via sketch maps and the system can automatically augment the sketch training data. The proposed model is validated using multi-source conflated map data including 131,300 labeled scene samples after data augmentation. The empirical results demonstrate that the DeepSSN outperforms baseline methods including k-nearest-neighbors, multilayer perceptron, AlexNet, DenseNet, and ResNet using mean reciprocal rank and precision metrics. This research advances geographic information retrieval studies by introducing a novel deep learning method tailored to spatial scene queries.
Bisimulation metrics define a distance measure between states of a Markov decision process (MDP) based on a comparison of reward sequences. Due to this property they provide theoretical guarantees in value function approximation. In this work we first prove that bisimulation metrics can be defined via any $p$-Wasserstein metric for $p\geq 1$. Then we describe an approximate policy iteration (API) procedure that uses $\epsilon$-aggregation with $\pi$-bisimulation and prove performance bounds for continuous state spaces. We bound the difference between $\pi$-bisimulation metrics in terms of the change in the policies themselves. Based on these theoretical results, we design an API($\alpha$) procedure that employs conservative policy updates and enjoys better performance bounds than the naive API approach. In addition, we propose a novel trust region approach which circumvents the requirement to explicitly solve a constrained optimization problem. Finally, we provide experimental evidence of improved stability compared to non-conservative alternatives in simulated continuous control.
We show how graph neural networks can be used to solve the canonical graph coloring problem. We frame graph coloring as a multi-class node classification problem and utilize an unsupervised training strategy based on the statistical physics Potts model. Generalizations to other multi-class problems such as community detection, data clustering, and the minimum clique cover problem are straightforward. We provide numerical benchmark results and illustrate our approach with an end-to-end application for a real-world scheduling use case within a comprehensive encode-process-decode framework. Our optimization approach performs on par or outperforms existing solvers, with the ability to scale to problems with millions of variables.
Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.
In this manuscript, we offer a gentle review of submodularity and supermodularity and their properties. We offer a plethora of submodular definitions; a full description of a number of example submodular functions and their generalizations; example discrete constraints; a discussion of basic algorithms for maximization, minimization, and other operations; a brief overview of continuous submodular extensions; and some historical applications. We then turn to how submodularity is useful in machine learning and artificial intelligence. This includes summarization, and we offer a complete account of the differences between and commonalities amongst sketching, coresets, extractive and abstractive summarization in NLP, data distillation and condensation, and data subset selection and feature selection. We discuss a variety of ways to produce a submodular function useful for machine learning, including heuristic hand-crafting, learning or approximately learning a submodular function or aspects thereof, and some advantages of the use of a submodular function as a coreset producer. We discuss submodular combinatorial information functions, and how submodularity is useful for clustering, data partitioning, parallel machine learning, active and semi-supervised learning, probabilistic modeling, and structured norms and loss functions.
Hyperdimensional computing (HDC), also known as vector symbolic architectures (VSA), is a computing framework used within artificial intelligence and cognitive computing that operates with distributed vector representations of large fixed dimensionality. A critical step for designing the HDC/VSA solutions is to obtain such representations from the input data. Here, we focus on sequences and propose their transformation to distributed representations that both preserve the similarity of identical sequence elements at nearby positions and are equivariant to the sequence shift. These properties are enabled by forming representations of sequence positions using recursive binding and superposition operations. The proposed transformation was experimentally investigated with symbolic strings used for modeling human perception of word similarity. The obtained results are on a par with more sophisticated approaches from the literature. The proposed transformation was designed for the HDC/VSA model known as Fourier Holographic Reduced Representations. However, it can be adapted to some other HDC/VSA models.
A new generation of increasingly autonomous and self-learning cyber-physical systems (CPS) is being developed for control applications in the real world. These systems are AI-based in that they leverage techniques from the field of Artificial intelligence (AI) to flexibly cope with imprecision, inconsistency, incompleteness, to have an inherent ability to learn from experience, and to adapt according to changing and even unforeseen situations. This extra flexibility of AI systems makes it harder to predict their behavior. Moreover, AI systems usually are safety-critical in that they may be causing real harm in (and to) the real world. Consequently, the central question regarding the development of such systems is how to handle or even overcome this basic dichotomy between unpredictable and safe behavior of AI systems. In other words, how can we best construct systems that exploit AI techniques, without incurring the frailties of "AI-like" behavior?
Subgraph matching is a fundamental problem in various fields that use graph structured data. Subgraph matching algorithms enumerate all isomorphic embeddings of a query graph q in a data graph G. An important branch of matching algorithms exploit the backtracking search approach which recursively extends intermediate results following a matching order of query vertices. It has been shown that the matching order plays a critical role in time efficiency of these backtracking based subgraph matching algorithms. In recent years, many advanced techniques for query vertex ordering (i.e., matching order generation) have been proposed to reduce the unpromising intermediate results according to the preset heuristic rules. In this paper, for the first time we apply the Reinforcement Learning (RL) and Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) techniques to generate the high-quality matching order for subgraph matching algorithms. Instead of using the fixed heuristics to generate the matching order, our model could capture and make full use of the graph information, and thus determine the query vertex order with the adaptive learning-based rule that could significantly reduces the number of redundant enumerations. With the help of the reinforcement learning framework, our model is able to consider the long-term benefits rather than only consider the local information at current ordering step.Extensive experiments on six real-life data graphs demonstrate that our proposed matching order generation technique could reduce up to two orders of magnitude of query processing time compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.