Aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) involves three fundamental subtasks: aspect term extraction, opinion term extraction, and aspect-level sentiment classification. Early works only focused on solving one of these subtasks individually. Some recent work focused on solving a combination of two subtasks, e.g., extracting aspect terms along with sentiment polarities or extracting the aspect and opinion terms pair-wisely. More recently, the triple extraction task has been proposed, i.e., extracting the (aspect term, opinion term, sentiment polarity) triples from a sentence. However, previous approaches fail to solve all subtasks in a unified end-to-end framework. In this paper, we propose a complete solution for ABSA. We construct two machine reading comprehension (MRC) problems, and solve all subtasks by joint training two BERT-MRC models with parameters sharing. We conduct experiments on these subtasks and results on several benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework, which significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods.
Continual learning in task-oriented dialogue systems can allow us to add new domains and functionalities through time without incurring the high cost of a whole system retraining. In this paper, we propose a continual learning benchmark for task-oriented dialogue systems with 37 domains to be learned continuously in four settings, such as intent recognition, state tracking, natural language generation, and end-to-end. Moreover, we implement and compare multiple existing continual learning baselines, and we propose a simple yet effective architectural method based on residual adapters. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed architectural method and a simple replay-based strategy perform comparably well but they both achieve inferior performance to the multi-task learning baseline, in where all the data are shown at once, showing that continual learning in task-oriented dialogue systems is a challenging task. Furthermore, we reveal several trade-offs between different continual learning methods in term of parameter usage and memory size, which are important in the design of a task-oriented dialogue system. The proposed benchmark is released together with several baselines to promote more research in this direction.
This project's aim, is to explore the world of Natural Language Processing (NLP) by building what is known as a Sentiment Analysis Model. A sentiment analysis model is a model that analyses a given piece of text and predicts whether this piece of text expresses positive or negative sentiment. To this end, we will be using the sentiment140 dataset containing data collected from twitter. An impressive feature of this dataset is that it is perfectly balanced (i.e., the number of examples in each class is equal). Our approach was unique because our training data was automatically created, as opposed to having humans manual annotate tweets.
Social media popularity and importance is on the increase, due to people using it for various types of social interaction across multiple channels. This social interaction by online users includes submission of feedback, opinions and recommendations about various individuals, entities, topics, and events. This systematic review focuses on the evolving research area of Social Opinion Mining, tasked with the identification of multiple opinion dimensions, such as subjectivity, sentiment polarity, emotion, affect, sarcasm and irony, from user-generated content represented across multiple social media platforms and in various media formats, like text, image, video and audio. Therefore, through Social Opinion Mining, natural language can be understood in terms of the different opinion dimensions, as expressed by humans. This contributes towards the evolution of Artificial Intelligence, which in turn helps the advancement of several real-world use cases, such as customer service and decision making. A thorough systematic review was carried out on Social Opinion Mining research which totals 485 studies and spans a period of twelve years between 2007 and 2018. The in-depth analysis focuses on the social media platforms, techniques, social datasets, language, modality, tools and technologies, natural language processing tasks and other aspects derived from the published studies. Such multi-source information fusion plays a fundamental role in mining of people's social opinions from social media platforms. These can be utilised in many application areas, ranging from marketing, advertising and sales for product/service management, and in multiple domains and industries, such as politics, technology, finance, healthcare, sports and government. Future research directions are presented, whereas further research and development has the potential of leaving a wider academic and societal impact.
Gunrock 2.0 is built on top of Gunrock with an emphasis on user adaptation. Gunrock 2.0 combines various neural natural language understanding modules, including named entity detection, linking, and dialog act prediction, to improve user understanding. Its dialog management is a hierarchical model that handles various topics, such as movies, music, and sports. The system-level dialog manager can handle question detection, acknowledgment, error handling, and additional functions, making downstream modules much easier to design and implement. The dialog manager also adapts its topic selection to accommodate different users' profile information, such as inferred gender and personality. The generation model is a mix of templates and neural generation models. Gunrock 2.0 is able to achieve an average rating of 3.73 at its latest build from May 29th to June 4th.
Lin, Chien-Wei, Auvray, Vincent, Elkind, Daniel, Biswas, Arijit, Fazel-Zarandi, Maryam, Belgamwar, Nehal, Chandra, Shubhra, Zhao, Matt, Metallinou, Angeliki, Chung, Tagyoung, Zhu, Charlie Shucheng, Adhikari, Suranjit, Hakkani-Tur, Dilek
Goal-oriented dialog systems enable users to complete specific goals like requesting information about a movie or booking a ticket. Typically the dialog system pipeline contains multiple ML models, including natural language understanding, state tracking and action prediction (policy learning). These models are trained through a combination of supervised or reinforcement learning methods and therefore require collection of labeled domain specific datasets. However, collecting annotated datasets with language and dialog-flow variations is expensive, time-consuming and scales poorly due to human involvement. In this paper, we propose an approach for automatically creating a large corpus of annotated dialogs from a few thoroughly annotated sample dialogs and the dialog schema. Our approach includes a novel goal-sampling technique for sampling plausible user goals and a dialog simulation technique that uses heuristic interplay between the user and the system (Alexa), where the user tries to achieve the sampled goal. We validate our approach by generating data and training three different downstream conversational ML models. We achieve 18 ? 50% relative accuracy improvements on a held-out test set compared to a baseline dialog generation approach that only samples natural language and entity value variations from existing catalogs but does not generate any novel dialog flow variations. We also qualitatively establish that the proposed approach is better than the baseline. Moreover, several different conversational experiences have been built using this method, which enables customers to have a wide variety of conversations with Alexa.
The goal of text generation is to make machines express in human language. It is one of the most important yet challenging tasks in natural language processing (NLP). Since 2014, various neural encoder-decoder models pioneered by Seq2Seq have been proposed to achieve the goal by learning to map input text to output text. However, the input text alone often provides limited knowledge to generate the desired output, so the performance of text generation is still far from satisfaction in many real-world scenarios. To address this issue, researchers have considered incorporating various forms of knowledge beyond the input text into the generation models. This research direction is known as knowledge-enhanced text generation. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review of the research on knowledge enhanced text generation over the past five years. The main content includes two parts: (i) general methods and architectures for integrating knowledge into text generation; (ii) specific techniques and applications according to different forms of knowledge data. This survey can have broad audiences, researchers and practitioners, in academia and industry.
(T)ACSA tasks, including aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) and targeted aspect-category sentiment analysis (TACSA), aims at identifying sentiment polarity on predefined categories. Incremental learning on new categories is necessary for (T)ACSA real applications. Though current multi-task learning models achieve good performance in (T)ACSA tasks, they suffer from catastrophic forgetting problems in (T)ACSA incremental learning tasks. In this paper, to make multi-task learning feasible for incremental learning, we proposed Category Name Embedding network (CNE-net). We set both encoder and decoder shared among all categories to weaken the catastrophic forgetting problem. Besides the origin input sentence, we applied another input feature, i.e., category name, for task discrimination. Our model achieved state-of-the-art on two (T)ACSA benchmark datasets. Furthermore, we proposed a dataset for (T)ACSA incremental learning and achieved the best performance compared with other strong baselines.
It is challenging to perform lifelong language learning (LLL) on a stream of different tasks without any performance degradation comparing to the multi-task counterparts. To address this issue, we present Lifelong Language Knowledge Distillation (L2KD), a simple but efficient method that can be easily applied to existing LLL architectures in order to mitigate the degradation. Specifically, when the LLL model is trained on a new task, we assign a teacher model to first learn the new task, and pass the knowledge to the LLL model via knowledge distillation. Therefore, the LLL model can better adapt to the new task while keeping the previously learned knowledge. Experiments show that the proposed L2KD consistently improves previous state-of-the-art models, and the degradation comparing to multi-task models in LLL tasks is well mitigated for both sequence generation and text classification tasks.
Analysis of a large amount of data has always brought value to institutions and organizations. Lately, people's opinions expressed through text have become a very important aspect of this analysis. In response to this challenge, a natural language processing technique known as Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) has emerged. Having the ability to extract the polarity for each aspect of opinions separately, ABSA has found itself useful in a wide range of domains. Education is one of the domains in which ABSA can be successfully utilized. Being able to understand and find out what students like and don't like most about a course, professor, or teaching methodology can be of great importance for the respective institutions. While this task represents a unique NLP challenge, many studies have proposed different approaches to tackle the problem. In this work, we present a comprehensive review of the existing work in ABSA with a focus in the education domain. A wide range of methodologies are discussed and conclusions are drawn.