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Understand your Customer Better with Sentiment Analysis

#artificialintelligence

Originally published on Towards AI the World's Leading AI and Technology News and Media Company. If you are building an AI-related product or service, we invite you to consider becoming an AI sponsor. At Towards AI, we help scale AI and technology startups. Let us help you unleash your technology to the masses. "Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning."


Conversational Agents: Theory and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this chapter, we provide a review of conversational agents (CAs), discussing chatbots, intended for casual conversation with a user, as well as task-oriented agents that generally engage in discussions intended to reach one or several specific goals, often (but not always) within a specific domain. We also consider the concept of embodied conversational agents, briefly reviewing aspects such as character animation and speech processing. The many different approaches for representing dialogue in CAs are discussed in some detail, along with methods for evaluating such agents, emphasizing the important topics of accountability and interpretability. A brief historical overview is given, followed by an extensive overview of various applications, especially in the fields of health and education. We end the chapter by discussing benefits and potential risks regarding the societal impact of current and future CA technology.


Automatic Recognition of the General-Purpose Communicative Functions Defined by the ISO 24617-2 Standard for Dialog Act Annotation

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

From the perspective of a dialog system, it is important to identify the intention behind the segments in a dialog, since it provides an important cue regarding the information that is present in the segments and how they should be interpreted. ISO 24617-2, the standard for dialog act annotation, defines a hierarchically organized set of general-purpose communicative functions which correspond to different intentions that are relevant in the context of a dialog. We explore the automatic recognition of these communicative functions in the DialogBank, which is a reference set of dialogs annotated according to this standard. To do so, we propose adaptations of existing approaches to flat dialog act recognition that allow them to deal with the hierarchical classification problem. More specifically, we propose the use of an end-to-end hierarchical network with cascading outputs and maximum a posteriori path estimation to predict the communicative function at each level of the hierarchy, preserve the dependencies between the functions in the path, and decide at which level to stop. Furthermore, since the amount of dialogs in the DialogBank is small, we rely on transfer learning processes to reduce overfitting and improve performance. The results of our experiments show that our approach outperforms both a flat one and hierarchical approaches based on multiple classifiers and that each of its components plays an important role towards the recognition of general-purpose communicative functions.


Natural Language Processing and Sentiment Analysis

#artificialintelligence

You're likely familiar with the saying, "Texting is a brilliant way to miscommunicate how you feel and misinterpret what other people mean." You've probably even experienced it directly! Substitute "texting" with "email" or "online reviews" and you've struck the nerve of businesses worldwide. Gaining a proper understanding of what clients and consumers have to say about your product or service or, more importantly, how they feel about your brand, is a universal struggle for businesses everywhere. What if I told you it doesn't have to be this way?


Knowledge Graph Augmented Network Towards Multiview Representation Learning for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained task of sentiment analysis. To better comprehend long complicated sentences and obtain accurate aspect-specific information, linguistic and commonsense knowledge are generally required in this task. However, most methods employ complicated and inefficient approaches to incorporate external knowledge, e.g., directly searching the graph nodes. Additionally, the complementarity between external knowledge and linguistic information has not been thoroughly studied. To this end, we propose a knowledge graph augmented network (KGAN), which aims to effectively incorporate external knowledge with explicitly syntactic and contextual information. In particular, KGAN captures the sentiment feature representations from multiple different perspectives, i.e., context-, syntax- and knowledge-based. First, KGAN learns the contextual and syntactic representations in parallel to fully extract the semantic features. Then, KGAN integrates the knowledge graphs into the embedding space, based on which the aspect-specific knowledge representations are further obtained via an attention mechanism. Last, we propose a hierarchical fusion module to complement these multiview representations in a local-to-global manner. Extensive experiments on three popular ABSA benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our KGAN. Notably, with the help of the pretrained model of RoBERTa, KGAN achieves a new record of state-of-the-art performance.


Semantic and sentiment analysis of selected Bhagavad Gita translations using BERT-based language framework

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It is well known that translations of songs and poems not only breaks rhythm and rhyming patterns, but also results in loss of semantic information. The Bhagavad Gita is an ancient Hindu philosophical text originally written in Sanskrit that features a conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna prior to the Mahabharata war. The Bhagavad Gita is also one of the key sacred texts in Hinduism and known as the forefront of the Vedic corpus of Hinduism. In the last two centuries, there has been a lot of interest in Hindu philosophy by western scholars and hence the Bhagavad Gita has been translated in a number of languages. However, there is not much work that validates the quality of the English translations. Recent progress of language models powered by deep learning has enabled not only translations but better understanding of language and texts with semantic and sentiment analysis. Our work is motivated by the recent progress of language models powered by deep learning methods. In this paper, we compare selected translations (mostly from Sanskrit to English) of the Bhagavad Gita using semantic and sentiment analyses. We use hand-labelled sentiment dataset for tuning state-of-art deep learning-based language model known as \textit{bidirectional encoder representations from transformers} (BERT). We use novel sentence embedding models to provide semantic analysis for selected chapters and verses across translations. Finally, we use the aforementioned models for sentiment and semantic analyses and provide visualisation of results. Our results show that although the style and vocabulary in the respective Bhagavad Gita translations vary widely, the sentiment analysis and semantic similarity shows that the message conveyed are mostly similar across the translations.


Auto-ABSA: Automatic Detection of Aspects in Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

After transformer is proposed, lots of pre-trained language models have been come up with and sentiment analysis (SA) task has been improved. In this paper, we proposed a method that uses an auxiliary sentence about aspects that the sentence contains to help sentiment prediction. The first is aspect detection, which uses a multi-aspects detection model to predict all aspects that the sentence has. Combining the predicted aspects and the original sentence as Sentiment Analysis (SA) model's input. The second is to do out-of-domain aspect-based sentiment analysis(ABSA), train sentiment classification model with one kind of dataset and validate it with another kind of dataset. Finally, we created two baselines, they use no aspect and all aspects as sentiment classification model's input, respectively. Compare two baselines performance to our method, found that our method really makes sense.


Analyzing Scientific Publications using Domain-Specific Word Embedding and Topic Modelling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The scientific world is changing at a rapid pace, with new technology being developed and new trends being set at an increasing frequency. This paper presents a framework for conducting scientific analyses of academic publications, which is crucial to monitor research trends and identify potential innovations. This framework adopts and combines various techniques of Natural Language Processing, such as word embedding and topic modelling. Word embedding is used to capture semantic meanings of domain-specific words. We propose two novel scientific publication embedding, i.e., PUB-G and PUB-W, which are capable of learning semantic meanings of general as well as domain-specific words in various research fields. Thereafter, topic modelling is used to identify clusters of research topics within these larger research fields. We curated a publication dataset consisting of two conferences and two journals from 1995 to 2020 from two research domains. Experimental results show that our PUB-G and PUB-W embeddings are superior in comparison to other baseline embeddings by a margin of ~0.18-1.03 based on topic coherence.


Open Vocabulary Electroencephalography-To-Text Decoding and Zero-shot Sentiment Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

State-of-the-art brain-to-text systems have achieved great success in decoding language directly from brain signals using neural networks. However, current approaches are limited to small closed vocabularies which are far from enough for natural communication. In addition, most of the high-performing approaches require data from invasive devices (e.g., ECoG). In this paper, we extend the problem to open vocabulary Electroencephalography(EEG)-To-Text Sequence-To-Sequence decoding and zero-shot sentence sentiment classification on natural reading tasks. We hypothesis that the human brain functions as a special text encoder and propose a novel framework leveraging pre-trained language models (e.g., BART). Our model achieves a 40.1% BLEU-1 score on EEG-To-Text decoding and a 55.6% F1 score on zero-shot EEG-based ternary sentiment classification, which significantly outperforms supervised baselines. Furthermore, we show that our proposed model can handle data from various subjects and sources, showing great potential for a high-performance open vocabulary brain-to-text system once sufficient data is available


Continual Learning with Knowledge Transfer for Sentiment Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper studies continual learning (CL) for sentiment classification (SC). In this setting, the CL system learns a sequence of SC tasks incrementally in a neural network, where each task builds a classifier to classify the sentiment of reviews of a particular product category or domain. Two natural questions are: Can the system transfer the knowledge learned in the past from the previous tasks to the new task to help it learn a better model for the new task? And, can old models for previous tasks be improved in the process as well? This paper proposes a novel technique called KAN to achieve these objectives. KAN can markedly improve the SC accuracy of both the new task and the old tasks via forward and backward knowledge transfer. The effectiveness of KAN is demonstrated through extensive experiments.