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Emerging Applications for Intelligent Diabetes Management

AI Magazine

Diabetes management is a difficult task for patients, who must monitor and control their blood glucose levels in order to avoid serious diabetic complications. It is a difficult task for physicians, who must manually interpret large volumes of blood glucose data to tailor therapy to the needs of each patient. This paper describes three emerging applications that employ AI to ease this task: (1) case-based decision support for diabetes management; (2) machine learning classification of blood glucose plots; and (3) support vector regression for blood glucose prediction. The first application provides decision support by detecting blood glucose control problems and recommending therapeutic adjustments to correct them. The second provides an automated screen for excessive glycemic variability.


Programming Fairness in Algorithms

#artificialintelligence

"Being good is easy, what is difficult is being just." "We need to defend the interests of those whom we've never met and never will." Note: This article is intended for a general audience to try and elucidate the complicated nature of unfairness in machine learning algorithms. As such, I have tried to explain concepts in an accessible way with minimal use of mathematics, in the hope that everyone can get something out of reading this. Supervised machine learning algorithms are inherently discriminatory. They are discriminatory in the sense that they use information embedded in the features of data to separate instances into distinct categories -- indeed, this is their designated purpose in life. This is reflected in the name for these algorithms which are often referred to as discriminative algorithms (splitting data into categories), in contrast to generative algorithms (generating data from a given category). When we use supervised machine learning, this "discrimination" is used as an aid to help us categorize our data into distinct categories within the data distribution, as illustrated below. Whilst this occurs when we apply discriminative algorithms -- such as support vector machines, forms of parametric regression (e.g.


Machine Learning Classification Bootcamp in Python

#artificialintelligence

Free Coupon Discount - Build 10 Practical Projects and Advance Your Skills in Machine Learning Using Python and Scikit Learn Created by Dr. Ryan Ahmed, Ph.D., MBA, Kirill Eremenko, Hadelin de Ponteves, Mitchell Bouchard, SuperDataScience Team Students also bought Machine Learning A-Z: Hands-On Python & R In Data Science Python for Data Science and Machine Learning Bootcamp Machine Learning, Data Science and Deep Learning with Python Machine Learning with Javascript A Beginner's Guide To Machine Learning with Unity Preview this Udemy Course GET COUPON CODE Description Are you ready to master Machine Learning techniques and Kick-off your career as a Data Scientist?! You came to the right place! Machine Learning skill is one of the top skills to acquire in 2019 with an average salary of over $114,000 in the United States according to PayScale! The total number of ML jobs over the past two years has grown around 600 percent and expected to grow even more by 2020. This course provides students with knowledge, hands-on experience of state-of-the-art machine learning classification techniques such as Logistic Regression Decision Trees Random Forest Naïve Bayes Support Vector Machines (SVM) In this course, we are going to provide students with knowledge of key aspects of state-of-the-art classification techniques.


Programming Fairness in Algorithms

#artificialintelligence

Being good is easy, what is difficult is being just. We need to defend the interests of those whom we've never met and never will. Note: This article is intended for a general audience to try and elucidate the complicated nature of unfairness in machine learning algorithms. As such, I have tried to explain concepts in an accessible way with minimal use of mathematics, in the hope that everyone can get something out of reading this. Supervised machine learning algorithms are inherently discriminatory. They are discriminatory in the sense that they use information embedded in the features of data to separate instances into distinct categories -- indeed, this is their designated purpose in life. This is reflected in the name for these algorithms which are often referred to as discriminative algorithms (splitting data into categories), in contrast to generative algorithms (generating data from a given category). When we use supervised machine learning, this "discrimination" is used as an aid to help us categorize our data into distinct categories within the data distribution, as illustrated below. Whilst this occurs when we apply discriminative algorithms -- such as support vector machines, forms of parametric regression (e.g. For example, using last week's weather data to try and predict the weather tomorrow has no moral valence attached to it.


White-box Induction From SVM Models: Explainable AI with Logic Programming

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We focus on the problem of inducing logic programs that explain models learned by the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The top-down sequential covering inductive logic programming (ILP) algorithms (e.g., FOIL) apply hill-climbing search using heuristics from information theory. A major issue with this class of algorithms is getting stuck in a local optimum. In our new approach, however, the data-dependent hill-climbing search is replaced with a model-dependent search where a globally optimal SVM model is trained first, then the algorithm looks into support vectors as the most influential data points in the model, and induces a clause that would cover the support vector and points that are most similar to that support vector. Instead of defining a fixed hypothesis search space, our algorithm makes use of SHAP, an example-specific interpreter in explainable AI, to determine a relevant set of features. This approach yields an algorithm that captures SVM model's underlying logic and outperforms %GG: the FOIL algorithm --> other ILP algorithms other ILP algorithms in terms of the number of induced clauses and classification evaluation metrics. This paper is under consideration for publication in the journal of "Theory and practice of logic programming".


Machine Learning Classification Bootcamp in Python

#artificialintelligence

Online Courses Udemy Build 10 Practical Projects and Advance Your Skills in Machine Learning Using Python and Scikit Learn Created by Dr. Ryan Ahmed, Ph.D., MBA, Kirill Eremenko, Hadelin de Ponteves, Mitchell Bouchard, SuperDataScience Team English [Auto-generated], Indonesian [Auto-generated] Students also bought [2020] Deploying Machine Learning Models - A Complete Guide Machine Learning applied to manufacturing processing Scala and Spark for Big Data and Machine Learning Machine Learning A-Z: Become Kaggle Master Machine Learning and AI: Support Vector Machines in Python Preview this course GET COUPON CODE Description Are you ready to master Machine Learning techniques and Kick-off your career as a Data Scientist?! You came to the right place! Machine Learning skill is one of the top skills to acquire in 2019 with an average salary of over $114,000 in the United States according to PayScale! The total number of ML jobs over the past two years has grown around 600 percent and expected to grow even more by 2020. This course provides students with knowledge, hands-on experience of state-of-the-art machine learning classification techniques such as Logistic Regression Decision Trees Random Forest Naïve Bayes Support Vector Machines (SVM) In this course, we are going to provide students with knowledge of key aspects of state-of-the-art classification techniques.


Boosting Ant Colony Optimization via Solution Prediction and Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper introduces an enhanced meta-heuristic (ML-ACO) that combines machine learning (ML) and ant colony optimization (ACO) to solve combinatorial optimization problems. To illustrate the underlying mechanism of our enhanced algorithm, we start by describing a test problem -- the orienteering problem -- used to demonstrate the efficacy of ML-ACO. In this problem, the objective is to find a route that visits a subset of vertices in a graph within a time budget to maximize the collected score. In the first phase of our ML-ACO algorithm, an ML model is trained using a set of small problem instances where the optimal solution is known. Specifically, classification models are used to classify an edge as being part of the optimal route, or not, using problem-specific features and statistical measures. We have tested several classification models including graph neural networks, logistic regression and support vector machines. The trained model is then used to predict the probability that an edge in the graph of a test problem instance belongs to the corresponding optimal route. In the second phase, we incorporate the predicted probabilities into the ACO component of our algorithm. Here, the probability values bias sampling towards favoring those predicted high-quality edges when constructing feasible routes. We empirically show that ML-ACO generates results that are significantly better than the standard ACO algorithm, especially when the computational budget is limited. Furthermore, we show our algorithm is robust in the sense that (a) its overall performance is not sensitive to any particular classification model, and (b) it generalizes well to large and real-world problem instances. Our approach integrating ML with a meta-heuristic is generic and can be applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems.


Machine Learning May Predict Patient Satisfaction After Breast Reconstruction - Cancer Therapy Advisor

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning increasingly supports physician decisions by making it easier to detect patterns in data as a means of predicting patient outcomes. In breast cancer, that now could apply to every stage of the experience, from diagnostics to mastectomy and breast reconstruction. At the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology -- which was virtual this year, due to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic -- a consortium of researchers presented an abstract detailing how machine learning algorithms were able to correctly predict how individual patients would feel about their breast reconstruction.1 Using this tool in a clinical setting could help physicians guide patients through the recovery process in a way that better anticipates, and subsequently supports, their emotional reaction to this intensely personal medical procedure. Physician-researchers across 11 institutions in the United States and Canada trained 4 different types of machine learning algorithms -- regularized regression, Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, Regression Tree -- to predict with 95% accuracy whether a specific patient would be satisfied or dissatisfied with their breast reconstruction 2 years after their operation.


Wearable Respiration Monitoring: Interpretable Inference with Context and Sensor Biomarkers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Breathing rate (BR), minute ventilation (VE), and other respiratory parameters are essential for real-time patient monitoring in many acute health conditions, such as asthma. The clinical standard for measuring respiration, namely Spirometry, is hardly suitable for continuous use. Wearables can track many physiological signals, like ECG and motion, yet not respiration. Deriving respiration from other modalities has become an area of active research. In this work, we infer respiratory parameters from wearable ECG and wrist motion signals. We propose a modular and generalizable classification-regression pipeline to utilize available context information, such as physical activity, in learning context-conditioned inference models. Morphological and power domain novel features from the wearable ECG are extracted to use with these models. Exploratory feature selection methods are incorporated in this pipeline to discover application-specific interpretable biomarkers. Using data from 15 subjects, we evaluate two implementations of the proposed pipeline: for inferring BR and VE. Each implementation compares generalized linear model, random forest, support vector machine, Gaussian process regression, and neighborhood component analysis as contextual regression models. Permutation, regularization, and relevance determination methods are used to rank the ECG features to identify robust ECG biomarkers across models and activities. This work demonstrates the potential of wearable sensors not only in continuous monitoring, but also in designing biomarker-driven preventive measures.


Is Deep Learning Necessary For Simple Classification Tasks

#artificialintelligence

Deep learning (DL) models are known for tackling the nonlinearities associated with data, which the traditional estimators such as logistic regression couldn't. However, there is still a cloud of doubt with regards to the increased use of computationally intensive DL for simple classification tasks. To find out if DL really outperforms shallow models significantly, the researchers from the University of Pennsylvania experiment with three ML pipelines that involve traditional methods, AutoML and DL in a paper titled, 'Is Deep Learning Necessary For Simple Classification Tasks.' The UPenn researchers stated that a support-vector machine (SVM) model might predict more accurately susceptibility to a certain complex genetic disease than a gradient boosting model trained on the same dataset. Moreover, choosing different hyperparameters within that SVM model can vary performances.