In part I of this tutorial we introduced the self-attention mechanism and the transformer architecture. In part II, we discussed position encoding and how to extend the transformer to longer sequence lengths. We also discussed connections between the transformer and other machine learning models. In this final part, we discuss challenges with transformer training dynamics and introduce some of the tricks that practitioners use to get transformers to converge. This discussion will be suitable for researchers who already understand the transformer architecture, and who are interested in training transformers and similar models from scratch. Despite their broad applications, transformers are surprisingly difficult to train from scratch. The input consists of a $I\times D$ matrix containing the $D$ dimensional embeddings for each of the $I$ input tokens.
As humans, we perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world around us with apparent ease. Think of how vivid the three-dimensional percept is when you look at a vase of flowers sitting on the table next to you. You can tell the shape and translucency of each petal through the subtle patterns of light and shading that play across its surface and effortlessly segment each flower from the background of the scene (Figure 1.1). Looking at a framed group por- trait, you can easily count (and name) all of the people in the picture and even guess at their emotions from their facial appearance. Perceptual psychologists have spent decades trying to understand how the visual system works and, even though they can devise optical illusions1 to tease apart some of its principles (Figure 1.3), a complete solution to this puzzle remains elusive (Marr 1982; Palmer 1999; Livingstone 2008).
If anyone has questions about which course may work best for them, please feel free to contact or message me. I will teach you the real-world skills necessary to stand out from the crowd. Hardly it can be 8-10 hours.. Professionally, I am a Data Scientist having experience of 7 years in finance, E-commerce, retail and transport. From my courses you will straight away notice how I combine my own experience to deliver content in a easiest fashion. To sum up, I am absolutely passionate about Data Analytics and I am looking forward to sharing my own knowledge with you!
Ishaan and Elizabeth, both graduate students in business, are attending a marketing strategy lecture at a business school in the Northeast. While learning about the principles of market segmentation, Ishaan texts "outdated" followed by three thinking--face emojis to Elizabeth. He wonders how demographic-, geographic-, or psychographic-based segmentation--the topic of the lecture--can help his family's franchise restaurant deal with the hundreds of sometimes-not-so-positive online reviews and social media posts. Meanwhile, Elizabeth hopes that the fast-food restaurant where she ordered her lunch understands that she now belongs to the segment of'extremely displeased' customers. Earlier, she used the restaurant's new app to order a burrito without cheese and sour cream, only to discover that the meal included both offending ingredients. Her lunch went straight into the trash can and she angrily tweeted her disappointment to the restaurant. This simple vignette illustrates an important point. Organizations of every size are challenged with capitalizing on enormous amounts of unstructured organizational data--for instance, from social media posts--particularly for applications such as market segmentation. The purpose of this article is to give the reader an idea of the challenges and opportunities faced by businesses using market segmentation, including the impacts of big data. Our research will demonstrate what market segmentation might look like in the near future, as we also offer a promising approach to implementing market segmentation using unstructured data.
In this manuscript, we offer a gentle review of submodularity and supermodularity and their properties. We offer a plethora of submodular definitions; a full description of a number of example submodular functions and their generalizations; example discrete constraints; a discussion of basic algorithms for maximization, minimization, and other operations; a brief overview of continuous submodular extensions; and some historical applications. We then turn to how submodularity is useful in machine learning and artificial intelligence. This includes summarization, and we offer a complete account of the differences between and commonalities amongst sketching, coresets, extractive and abstractive summarization in NLP, data distillation and condensation, and data subset selection and feature selection. We discuss a variety of ways to produce a submodular function useful for machine learning, including heuristic hand-crafting, learning or approximately learning a submodular function or aspects thereof, and some advantages of the use of a submodular function as a coreset producer. We discuss submodular combinatorial information functions, and how submodularity is useful for clustering, data partitioning, parallel machine learning, active and semi-supervised learning, probabilistic modeling, and structured norms and loss functions.
Harvard Business Review referred to data scientist as the "Sexiest Job of the 21st Century." Glassdoor placed it #1 on the 25 Best Jobs in America list. According to IBM, demand for this role will soar 28 percent by 2020. It should come as no surprise that in the new era of big data and machine learning, data scientists are becoming rock stars. Companies that are able to leverage massive amounts of data to improve the way they serve customers, build products, and run their operations will be positioned to thrive in this economy. And if you're moving down the path to becoming a data scientist, you must be prepared to impress prospective employers with your knowledge. And to do that you must be able to crack your next data science interview in one go! We have clubbed a list of the most popular data science interview questions you can expect in your next interview!
Roy, Sujit, Gorle, Gnaneswara Rao, Gaur, Vishal, Raza, Haider, Jameel, Shoaib
Predicting contextualised engagement in videos is a long-standing problem that has been popularly attempted by exploiting the number of views or the associated likes using different computational methods. The recent decade has seen a boom in online learning resources, and during the pandemic, there has been an exponential rise of online teaching videos without much quality control. The quality of the content could be improved if the creators could get constructive feedback on their content. Employing an army of domain expert volunteers to provide feedback on the videos might not scale. As a result, there has been a steep rise in developing computational methods to predict a user engagement score that is indicative of some form of possible user engagement, i.e., to what level a user would tend to engage with the content. A drawback in current methods is that they model various features separately, in a cascaded approach, that is prone to error propagation. Besides, most of them do not provide crucial explanations on how the creator could improve their content. In this paper, we have proposed a new unified model, CLUE for the educational domain, which learns from the features extracted from freely available public online teaching videos and provides explainable feedback on the video along with a user engagement score. Given the complexity of the task, our unified framework employs different pre-trained models working together as an ensemble of classifiers. Our model exploits various multi-modal features to model the complexity of language, context agnostic information, textual emotion of the delivered content, animation, speaker's pitch and speech emotions. Under a transfer learning setup, the overall model, in the unified space, is fine-tuned for downstream applications.
Li, Irene, George, Thomas, Fabbri, Alexander, Liao, Tammy, Chen, Benjamin, Kawamura, Rina, Zhou, Richard, Yan, Vanessa, Hingmire, Swapnil, Radev, Dragomir
Effective human learning depends on a wide selection of educational materials that align with the learner's current understanding of the topic. While the Internet has revolutionized human learning or education, a substantial resource accessibility barrier still exists. Namely, the excess of online information can make it challenging to navigate and discover high-quality learning materials. In this paper, we propose the educational resource discovery (ERD) pipeline that automates web resource discovery for novel domains. The pipeline consists of three main steps: data collection, feature extraction, and resource classification. We start with a known source domain and conduct resource discovery on two unseen target domains via transfer learning. We first collect frequent queries from a set of seed documents and search on the web to obtain candidate resources, such as lecture slides and introductory blog posts. Then we introduce a novel pretrained information retrieval deep neural network model, query-document masked language modeling (QD-MLM), to extract deep features of these candidate resources. We apply a tree-based classifier to decide whether the candidate is a positive learning resource. The pipeline achieves F1 scores of 0.94 and 0.82 when evaluated on two similar but novel target domains. Finally, we demonstrate how this pipeline can benefit an application: leading paragraph generation for surveys. This is the first study that considers various web resources for survey generation, to the best of our knowledge. We also release a corpus of 39,728 manually labeled web resources and 659 queries from NLP, Computer Vision (CV), and Statistics (STATS).
Pietikäinen, Matti, Silven, Olli
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.