Collaborating Authors


FlexiBERT: Are Current Transformer Architectures too Homogeneous and Rigid?

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

The existence of a plethora of language models makes the problem of selecting the best one for a custom task challenging. Most state-of-the-art methods leverage transformer-based models (e.g., BERT) or their variants. However, training such models and exploring their hyperparameter space is computationally expensive. Prior work proposes several neural architecture search (NAS) methods that employ performance predictors (e.g., surrogate models) to address this issue; however, such works limit analysis to homogeneous models that use fixed dimensionality throughout the network. This leads to sub-optimal architectures. To address this limitation, we propose a suite of heterogeneous and flexible models, namely FlexiBERT, that have varied encoder layers with a diverse set of possible operations and different hidden dimensions. For better-posed surrogate modeling in this expanded design space, we propose a new graph-similarity-based embedding scheme. We also propose a novel NAS policy, called BOSHNAS, that leverages this new scheme, Bayesian modeling, and second-order optimization, to quickly train and use a neural surrogate model to converge to the optimal architecture. A comprehensive set of experiments shows that the proposed policy, when applied to the FlexiBERT design space, pushes the performance frontier upwards compared to traditional models. FlexiBERT-Mini, one of our proposed models, has 3% fewer parameters than BERT-Mini and achieves 8.9% higher GLUE score. A FlexiBERT model with equivalent performance as the best homogeneous model has 2.6× smaller size. FlexiBERT-Large, another proposed model, attains state-of-the-art results, outperforming the baseline models by at least 5.7% on the GLUE benchmark.

Answering Visual Analogy Questions

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we study the problem of answering visual analogy questions. These questions take the form of image A is to image B as image C is to what. Answering these questions entails discovering the mapping from image A to image B and then extending the mapping to image C and searching for the image D such that the relation from A to B holds for C to D. We pose this problem as learning an embedding that encourages pairs of analogous images with similar transformations to be close together using convolutional neural networks with a quadruple Siamese architecture. We introduce a dataset of visual analogy questions in natural images, and show first results of its kind on solving analogy questions on natural images.

Pointer Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

We introduce a new neural architecture to learn the conditional probability of an output sequence with elements that are discrete tokens corresponding to positions in an input sequence. Such problems cannot be trivially addressed by existent approaches such as sequence-to-sequence [1] and Neural Turing Machines [2], because the number of target classes in each step of the output depends on the length of the input, which is variable. Problems such as sorting variable sized sequences, and various combinatorial optimization problems belong to this class. Our model solves the problem of variable size output dictionaries using a recently proposed mechanism of neural attention. It differs from the previous attention attempts in that, instead of using attention to blend hidden units of an encoder to a context vector at each decoder step, it uses attention as a pointer to select a member of the input sequence as the output.

DeepMath - Deep Sequence Models for Premise Selection

Neural Information Processing Systems

We study the effectiveness of neural sequence models for premise selection in automated theorem proving, one of the main bottlenecks in the formalization of mathematics. We propose a two stage approach for this task that yields good results for the premise selection task on the Mizar corpus while avoiding the handengineered features of existing state-of-the-art models. To our knowledge, this is the first time deep learning has been applied to theorem proving on a large scale.

Training and Evaluating Multimodal Word Embeddings with Large-scale Web Annotated Images

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we focus on training and evaluating effective word embeddings with both text and visual information. More specifically, we introduce a large-scale dataset with 300 million sentences describing over 40 million images crawled and downloaded from publicly available Pins (i.e. an image with sentence descriptions uploaded by users) on Pinterest [2]. This dataset is more than 200 times larger than MS COCO [22], the standard large-scale image dataset with sentence descriptions. In addition, we construct an evaluation dataset to directly assess the effectiveness of word embeddings in terms of finding semantically similar or related words and phrases. The word/phrase pairs in this evaluation dataset are collected from the click data with millions of users in an image search system, thus contain rich semantic relationships. Based on these datasets, we propose and compare several Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) based multimodal (text and image) models. Experiments show that our model benefits from incorporating the visual information into the word embeddings, and a weight sharing strategy is crucial for learning such multimodal embeddings. The project page is: http://www.stat.

End-to-End Goal-Driven Web Navigation

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a goal-driven web navigation as a benchmark task for evaluating an agent with abilities to understand natural language and plan on partially observed environments. In this challenging task, an agent navigates through a website, which is represented as a graph consisting of web pages as nodes and hyperlinks as directed edges, to find a web page in which a query appears. The agent is required to have sophisticated high-level reasoning based on natural languages and efficient sequential decision-making capability to succeed. We release a software tool, called WebNav, that automatically transforms a website into this goal-driven web navigation task, and as an example, we make WikiNav, a dataset constructed from the English Wikipedia. We extensively evaluate different variants of neural net based artificial agents on WikiNav and observe that the proposed goal-driven web navigation well reflects the advances in models, making it a suitable benchmark for evaluating future progress. Furthermore, we extend the WikiNav with questionanswer pairs from Jeopardy! and test the proposed agent based on recurrent neural networks against strong inverted index based search engines. The artificial agents trained on WikiNav outperforms the engined based approaches, demonstrating the capability of the proposed goal-driven navigation as a good proxy for measuring the progress in real-world tasks such as focused crawling and question-answering.

Unbounded cache model for online language modeling with open vocabulary

Neural Information Processing Systems

Recently, continuous cache models were proposed as extensions to recurrent neural network language models, to adapt their predictions to local changes in the data distribution. These models only capture the local context, of up to a few thousands tokens. In this paper, we propose an extension of continuous cache models, which can scale to larger contexts. In particular, we use a large scale non-parametric memory component that stores all the hidden activations seen in the past. We leverage recent advances in approximate nearest neighbor search and quantization algorithms to store millions of representations while searching them efficiently. We conduct extensive experiments showing that our approach significantly improves the perplexity of pre-trained language models on new distributions, and can scale efficiently to much larger contexts than previously proposed local cache models.

Deep Supervised Discrete Hashing

Neural Information Processing Systems

With the rapid growth of image and video data on the web, hashing has been extensively studied for image or video search in recent years. Benefiting from recent advances in deep learning, deep hashing methods have achieved promising results for image retrieval. However, there are some limitations of previous deep hashing methods (e.g., the semantic information is not fully exploited). In this paper, we develop a deep supervised discrete hashing algorithm based on the assumption that the learned binary codes should be ideal for classification. Both the pairwise label information and the classification information are used to learn the hash codes within one stream framework. We constrain the outputs of the last layer to be binary codes directly, which is rarely investigated in deep hashing algorithm. Because of the discrete nature of hash codes, an alternating minimization method is used to optimize the objective function. Experimental results have shown that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets.

Inferring Generative Model Structure with Static Analysis

Neural Information Processing Systems

Obtaining enough labeled data to robustly train complex discriminative models is a major bottleneck in the machine learning pipeline. A popular solution is combining multiple sources of weak supervision using generative models. The structure of these models affects the quality of the training labels, but is difficult to learn without any ground truth labels. We instead rely on weak supervision sources having some structure by virtue of being encoded programmatically. We present Coral, a paradigm that infers generative model structure by statically analyzing the code for these heuristics, thus significantly reducing the amount of data required to learn structure. We prove that Coral's sample complexity scales quasilinearly with the number of heuristics and number of relations identified, improving over the standard sample complexity, which is exponential in n for learning n

What is Cognitive Computing? Features, Scope & Limitations


Human thinking is beyond imagination. Can a computer develop such ability to think and reason without human intervention? This is something programming experts at IBM Watson are trying to achieve. Their goal is to simulate human thought process in a computerized model. The result is cognitive computing – a combination of cognitive science and computer science. Cognitive computing models provide a realistic roadmap to achieve artificial intelligence.