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What are Drawbacks of Beam Search?

#artificialintelligence

You can follow me on Linkedin! Note: There are different angles to answer an interview question. The author of this newsletter does not try to find a reference that answers a question exhaustively. Rather, the author would like to share some quick insights and help the readers to think, practice and do further research as necessary. Source of video/answers: Stanford CS224N: NLP with Deep Learning Winter 2019 Lecture 8 -- Translation, Seq2Seq, Attention by Dr. Abby See Natural Language Processing with Attention Models by Deeplearning.ai


Artificial Intelligence Tutorial for Beginners

#artificialintelligence

This Artificial Intelligence tutorial provides basic and intermediate information on concepts of Artificial Intelligence. It is designed to help students and working professionals who are complete beginners. In this tutorial, our focus will be on artificial intelligence, if you wish to learn more about machine learning, you can check out this tutorial for complete beginners tutorial of Machine Learning. Through the course of this Artificial Intelligence tutorial, we will look at various concepts such as the meaning of artificial intelligence, the levels of AI, why AI is important, it's various applications, the future of artificial intelligence, and more. Usually, to work in the field of AI, you need to have a lot of experience. Thus, we will also discuss the various job profiles which are associated with artificial intelligence and will eventually help you to attain relevant experience. You don't need to be from a specific background before joining the field of AI as it is possible to learn and attain the skills needed. While the terms Data Science, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine learning fall in the same domain and are connected, they have their specific applications and meaning. Simply put, artificial intelligence aims at enabling machines to execute reasoning by replicating human intelligence. Since the main objective of AI processes is to teach machines from experience, feeding the right information and self-correction is crucial. The answer to this question would depend on who you ask. A layman, with a fleeting understanding of technology, would link it to robots. If you ask about artificial intelligence to an AI researcher, (s)he would say that it's a set of algorithms that can produce results without having to be explicitly instructed to do so. Both of these answers are right.


Core Challenges in Embodied Vision-Language Planning

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Recent advances in the areas of multimodal machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) have led to the development of challenging tasks at the intersection of Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, and Embodied AI. Whereas many approaches and previous survey pursuits have characterised one or two of these dimensions, there has not been a holistic analysis at the center of all three. Moreover, even when combinations of these topics are considered, more focus is placed on describing, e.g., current architectural methods, as opposed to also illustrating high-level challenges and opportunities for the field. In this survey paper, we discuss Embodied Vision-Language Planning (EVLP) tasks, a family of prominent embodied navigation and manipulation problems that jointly use computer vision and natural language. We propose a taxonomy to unify these tasks and provide an in-depth analysis and comparison of the new and current algorithmic approaches, metrics, simulated environments, as well as the datasets used for EVLP tasks. Finally, we present the core challenges that we believe new EVLP works should seek to address, and we advocate for task construction that enables model generalizability and furthers real-world deployment.


10 Best AI Courses: Beginner to Advanced

#artificialintelligence

Are you looking for the Best Certification Courses for Artificial Intelligence?. If yes, then your search will end after reading this article. In this article, I will discuss the 10 Best Certification Courses for Artificial Intelligence. So, give your few minutes to this article and find out the Best AI Certification Course for you. Artificial Intelligence is changing our lives.


Continual Coarse-to-Fine Domain Adaptation in Semantic Segmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks are typically trained in a single shot for a specific task and data distribution, but in real world settings both the task and the domain of application can change. The problem becomes even more challenging in dense predictive tasks, such as semantic segmentation, and furthermore most approaches tackle the two problems separately. In this paper we introduce the novel task of coarse-to-fine learning of semantic segmentation architectures in presence of domain shift. We consider subsequent learning stages progressively refining the task at the semantic level; i.e., the finer set of semantic labels at each learning step is hierarchically derived from the coarser set of the previous step. We propose a new approach (CCDA) to tackle this scenario. First, we employ the maximum squares loss to align source and target domains and, at the same time, to balance the gradients between well-classified and harder samples. Second, we introduce a novel coarse-to-fine knowledge distillation constraint to transfer network capabilities acquired on a coarser set of labels to a set of finer labels. Finally, we design a coarse-to-fine weight initialization rule to spread the importance from each coarse class to the respective finer classes. To evaluate our approach, we design two benchmarks where source knowledge is extracted from the GTA5 dataset and it is transferred to either the Cityscapes or the IDD datasets, and we show how it outperforms the main competitors.


Knowledge Tracing: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans ability to transfer knowledge through teaching is one of the essential aspects for human intelligence. A human teacher can track the knowledge of students to customize the teaching on students needs. With the rise of online education platforms, there is a similar need for machines to track the knowledge of students and tailor their learning experience. This is known as the Knowledge Tracing (KT) problem in the literature. Effectively solving the KT problem would unlock the potential of computer-aided education applications such as intelligent tutoring systems, curriculum learning, and learning materials' recommendation. Moreover, from a more general viewpoint, a student may represent any kind of intelligent agents including both human and artificial agents. Thus, the potential of KT can be extended to any machine teaching application scenarios which seek for customizing the learning experience for a student agent (i.e., a machine learning model). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and systematic review for the KT literature. We cover a broad range of methods starting from the early attempts to the recent state-of-the-art methods using deep learning, while highlighting the theoretical aspects of models and the characteristics of benchmark datasets. Besides these, we shed light on key modelling differences between closely related methods and summarize them in an easy-to-understand format. Finally, we discuss current research gaps in the KT literature and possible future research and application directions.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Low-resource Learning with Knowledge Graphs: A Comprehensive Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Learning Data Teaching Strategies Via Knowledge Tracing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Teaching plays a fundamental role in human learning. Typically, a human teaching strategy would involve assessing a student's knowledge progress for tailoring the teaching materials in a way that enhances the learning progress. A human teacher would achieve this by tracing a student's knowledge over important learning concepts in a task. Albeit, such teaching strategy is not well exploited yet in machine learning as current machine teaching methods tend to directly assess the progress on individual training samples without paying attention to the underlying learning concepts in a learning task. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called Knowledge Augmented Data Teaching (KADT), which can optimize a data teaching strategy for a student model by tracing its knowledge progress over multiple learning concepts in a learning task. Specifically, the KADT method incorporates a knowledge tracing model to dynamically capture the knowledge progress of a student model in terms of latent learning concepts. Then we develop an attention pooling mechanism to distill knowledge representations of a student model with respect to class labels, which enables to develop a data teaching strategy on critical training samples. We have evaluated the performance of the KADT method on four different machine learning tasks including knowledge tracing, sentiment analysis, movie recommendation, and image classification. The results comparing to the state-of-the-art methods empirically validate that KADT consistently outperforms others on all tasks.