We describe an approach for unsupervised learning of a generic, distributed sentence encoder. Using the continuity of text from books, we train an encoderdecoder model that tries to reconstruct the surrounding sentences of an encoded passage. Sentences that share semantic and syntactic properties are thus mapped to similar vector representations. We next introduce a simple vocabulary expansion method to encode words that were not seen as part of training, allowing us to expand our vocabulary to a million words. After training our model, we extract and evaluate our vectors with linear models on 8 tasks: semantic relatedness, paraphrase detection, image-sentence ranking, question-type classification and 4 benchmark sentiment and subjectivity datasets. The end result is an off-the-shelf encoder that can produce highly generic sentence representations that are robust and perform well in practice.
This work aims to address the problem of image-based question-answering (QA) with new models and datasets. In our work, we propose to use neural networks and visual semantic embeddings, without intermediate stages such as object detection and image segmentation, to predict answers to simple questions about images. Our model performs 1.8 times better than the only published results on an existing image QA dataset. We also present a question generation algorithm that converts image descriptions, which are widely available, into QA form. We used this algorithm to produce an order-of-magnitude larger dataset, with more evenly distributed answers. A suite of baseline results on this new dataset are also presented.
The Teacher Forcing algorithm trains recurrent networks by supplying observed sequence values as inputs during training and using the network's own one-stepahead predictions to do multi-step sampling. We introduce the Professor Forcing algorithm, which uses adversarial domain adaptation to encourage the dynamics of the recurrent network to be the same when training the network and when sampling from the network over multiple time steps. We apply Professor Forcing to language modeling, vocal synthesis on raw waveforms, handwriting generation, and image generation. Empirically we find that Professor Forcing acts as a regularizer, improving test likelihood on character level Penn Treebank and sequential MNIST. We also find that the model qualitatively improves samples, especially when sampling for a large number of time steps. This is supported by human evaluation of sample quality. Trade-offs between Professor Forcing and Scheduled Sampling are discussed. We produce T-SNEs showing that Professor Forcing successfully makes the dynamics of the network during training and sampling more similar.
Recently, continuous cache models were proposed as extensions to recurrent neural network language models, to adapt their predictions to local changes in the data distribution. These models only capture the local context, of up to a few thousands tokens. In this paper, we propose an extension of continuous cache models, which can scale to larger contexts. In particular, we use a large scale non-parametric memory component that stores all the hidden activations seen in the past. We leverage recent advances in approximate nearest neighbor search and quantization algorithms to store millions of representations while searching them efficiently. We conduct extensive experiments showing that our approach significantly improves the perplexity of pre-trained language models on new distributions, and can scale efficiently to much larger contexts than previously proposed local cache models.
Forward messages consist of label representations such as representations of words and other attributes associated with the nodes. Backward messages consist of gradients that result from aggregating the label representations and applying a reconstruction loss. Node representations are finally computed from the representation of their labels.
Obtaining enough labeled data to robustly train complex discriminative models is a major bottleneck in the machine learning pipeline. A popular solution is combining multiple sources of weak supervision using generative models. The structure of these models affects the quality of the training labels, but is difficult to learn without any ground truth labels. We instead rely on weak supervision sources having some structure by virtue of being encoded programmatically. We present Coral, a paradigm that infers generative model structure by statically analyzing the code for these heuristics, thus significantly reducing the amount of data required to learn structure. We prove that Coral's sample complexity scales quasilinearly with the number of heuristics and number of relations identified, improving over the standard sample complexity, which is exponential in n for learning n
Learning meaningful representations that maintain the content necessary for a particular task while filtering away detrimental variations is a problem of great interest in machine learning. In this paper, we tackle the problem of learning representations invariant to a specific factor or trait of data. The representation learning process is formulated as an adversarial minimax game. We analyze the optimal equilibrium of such a game and find that it amounts to maximizing the uncertainty of inferring the detrimental factor given the representation while maximizing the certainty of making task-specific predictions. On three benchmark tasks, namely fair and bias-free classification, language-independent generation, and lighting-independent image classification, we show that the proposed framework induces an invariant representation, and leads to better generalization evidenced by the improved performance.
The growing importance of massive datasets used for deep learning makes robustness to label noise a critical property for classifiers to have. Sources of label noise include automatic labeling, non-expert labeling, and label corruption by data poisoning adversaries. Numerous previous works assume that no source of labels can be trusted. We relax this assumption and assume that a small subset of the training data is trusted. This enables substantial label corruption robustness performance gains. In addition, particularly severe label noise can be combated by using a set of trusted data with clean labels. We utilize trusted data by proposing a loss correction technique that utilizes trusted examples in a data-efficient manner to mitigate the effects of label noise on deep neural network classifiers. Across vision and natural language processing tasks, we experiment with various label noises at several strengths, and show that our method significantly outperforms existing methods.
Model compression is essential for serving large deep neural nets on devices with limited resources or applications that require real-time responses. As a case study, a neural language model usually consists of one or more recurrent layers sandwiched between an embedding layer used for representing input tokens and a softmax layer for generating output tokens. For problems with a very large vocabulary size, the embedding and the softmax matrices can account for more than half of the model size. For instance, the bigLSTM model achieves great performance on the One-Billion-Word (OBW) dataset with around 800k vocabulary, and its word embedding and softmax matrices use more than 6GBytes space, and are responsible for over 90% of the model parameters. In this paper, we propose GroupReduce, a novel compression method for neural language models, based on vocabulary-partition (block) based low-rank matrix approximation and the inherent frequency distribution of tokens (the power-law distribution of words). The experimental results show our method can significantly outperform traditional compression methods such as low-rank approximation and pruning. On the OBW dataset, our method achieved 6.6 times compression rate for the embedding and softmax matrices, and when combined with quantization, our method can achieve 26 times compression rate, which translates to a factor of 12.8 times compression for the entire model with very little degradation in perplexity.
However, it has been recently demonstrated that such methods can fail to converge even in simple convex optimization settings. In this work, we provide a new analysis of such methods applied to nonconvex stochastic optimization problems, characterizing the effect of increasing minibatch size. Our analysis shows that under this scenario such methods do converge to stationarity up to the statistical limit of variance in the stochastic gradients (scaled by a constant factor). In particular, our result implies that increasing minibatch sizes enables convergence, thus providing a way to circumvent the nonconvergence issues.