Exemplar learning is a powerful paradigm for discovering visual similarities in an unsupervised manner. In this context, however, the recent breakthrough in deep learning could not yet unfold its full potential. With only a single positive sample, a great imbalance between one positive and many negatives, and unreliable relationships between most samples, training of Convolutional Neural networks is impaired. Given weak estimates of local distance we propose a single optimization problem to extract batches of samples with mutually consistent relations. Conflicting relations are distributed over different batches and similar samples are grouped into compact cliques. Learning exemplar similarities is framed as a sequence of clique categorization tasks. The CNN then consolidates transitivity relations within and between cliques and learns a single representation for all samples without the need for labels. The proposed unsupervised approach has shown competitive performance on detailed posture analysis and object classification.
Obtaining enough labeled data to robustly train complex discriminative models is a major bottleneck in the machine learning pipeline. A popular solution is combining multiple sources of weak supervision using generative models. The structure of these models affects the quality of the training labels, but is difficult to learn without any ground truth labels. We instead rely on weak supervision sources having some structure by virtue of being encoded programmatically. We present Coral, a paradigm that infers generative model structure by statically analyzing the code for these heuristics, thus significantly reducing the amount of data required to learn structure. We prove that Coral's sample complexity scales quasilinearly with the number of heuristics and number of relations identified, improving over the standard sample complexity, which is exponential in n for learning n
We introduce a loss for metric learning, which is inspired by the Lowe's matching criterion for SIFT. We show that the proposed loss, that maximizes the distance between the closest positive and closest negative example in the batch, is better than complex regularization methods; it works well for both shallow and deep convolution network architectures. Applying the novel loss to the L2Net CNN architecture results in a compact descriptor named HardNet. It has the same dimensionality as SIFT (128) and shows state-of-art performance in wide baseline stereo, patch verification and instance retrieval benchmarks.
Agnostophobia, the fear of the unknown, can be experienced by deep learning engineers while applying their networks to real-world applications. Unfortunately, network behavior is not well defined for inputs far from a networks training set. In an uncontrolled environment, networks face many instances that are not of interest to them and have to be rejected in order to avoid a false positive. This problem has previously been tackled by researchers by either a) thresholding softmax, which by construction cannot return none of the known classes, or b) using an additional background or garbage class. In this paper, we show that both of these approaches help, but are generally insufficient when previously unseen classes are encountered. We also introduce a new evaluation metric that focuses on comparing the performance of multiple approaches in scenarios where such unseen classes or unknowns are encountered. Our major contributions are simple yet effective Entropic Open-Set and Objectosphere losses that train networks using negative samples from some classes. These novel losses are designed to maximize entropy for unknown inputs while increasing separation in deep feature space by modifying magnitudes of known and unknown samples. Experiments on networks trained to classify classes from MNIST and CIFAR-10 show that our novel loss functions are significantly better at dealing with unknown inputs from datasets such as Devanagari, NotMNIST, CIFAR-100, and SVHN.
Compressing word embeddings is important for deploying NLP models in memoryconstrained settings. However, understanding what makes compressed embeddings perform well on downstream tasks is challenging--existing measures of compression quality often fail to distinguish between embeddings that perform well and those that do not. We thus propose the eigenspace overlap score as a new measure. We relate the eigenspace overlap score to downstream performance by developing generalization bounds for the compressed embeddings in terms of this score, in the context of linear and logistic regression. We then show that we can lower bound the eigenspace overlap score for a simple uniform quantization compression method, helping to explain the strong empirical performance of this method. Finally, we show that by using the eigenspace overlap score as a selection criterion between embeddings drawn from a representative set we compressed, we can efficiently identify the better performing embedding with up to 2 lower selection error rates than the next best measure of compression quality, and avoid the cost of training a model for each task of interest.
Deep networks are well-known to be fragile to adversarial attacks. We conduct an empirical analysis of deep representations under the state-of-the-art attack method called PGD, and find that the attack causes the internal representation to shift closer to the "false" class. Motivated by this observation, we propose to regularize the representation space under attack with metric learning to produce more robust classifiers. By carefully sampling examples for metric learning, our learned representation not only increases robustness, but also detects previously unseen adversarial samples. Quantitative experiments show improvement of robustness accuracy by up to 4% and detection efficiency by up to 6% according to Area Under Curve score over prior work.
Determining whether inputs are out-of-distribution (OOD) is an essential building block for safely deploying machine learning models in the open world. However, previous methods relying on the softmax confidence score suffer from overconfident posterior distributions for OOD data. We propose a unified framework for OOD detection that uses an energy score. We show that energy scores better distinguish in-and out-of-distribution samples than the traditional approach using the softmax scores. Unlike softmax confidence scores, energy scores are theoretically aligned with the probability density of the inputs and are less susceptible to the overconfidence issue. Within this framework, energy can be flexibly used as a scoring function for any pre-trained neural classifier as well as a trainable cost function to shape the energy surface explicitly for OOD detection. On a CIFAR-10 pre-trained WideResNet, using the energy score reduces the average FPR (at TPR 95%) by 18.03% compared to the softmax confidence score. With energy-based training, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on common benchmarks.
In real-world classification tasks, each class often comprises multiple finer-grained "subclasses." As the subclass labels are frequently unavailable, models trained using only the coarser-grained class labels often exhibit highly variable performance across different subclasses. This phenomenon, known as hidden stratification, has important consequences for models deployed in safety-critical applications such as medicine.