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Identifying Cyber Threats Before They Happen: Deep Learning

#artificialintelligence

Crypto.com, Microsoft, NVidia, and Okta all got hacked this year. In some hacks, attackers are looking to take data, while some are just trying things out. Either way, it is in the interest of companies to patch up the holes in their security systems as more attackers are learning to take advantage of them. The project I am working on now is one to prevent cyber threats like these from happening. When a company is hacked, there is a lot at stake.


Artificial Intelligence Ethics and Safety: practical tools for creating "good" models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The AI Robotics Ethics Society (AIRES) is a non-profit organization founded in 2018 by Aaron Hui to promote awareness and the importance of ethical implementation and regulation of AI. AIRES is now an organization with chapters at universities such as UCLA (Los Angeles), USC (University of Southern California), Caltech (California Institute of Technology), Stanford University, Cornell University, Brown University, and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). AIRES at PUCRS is the first international chapter of AIRES, and as such, we are committed to promoting and enhancing the AIRES Mission. Our mission is to focus on educating the AI leaders of tomorrow in ethical principles to ensure that AI is created ethically and responsibly. As there are still few proposals for how we should implement ethical principles and normative guidelines in the practice of AI system development, the goal of this work is to try to bridge this gap between discourse and praxis. Between abstract principles and technical implementation. In this work, we seek to introduce the reader to the topic of AI Ethics and Safety. At the same time, we present several tools to help developers of intelligent systems develop "good" models. This work is a developing guide published in English and Portuguese. Contributions and suggestions are welcome.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


"How Does It Detect A Malicious App?" Explaining the Predictions of AI-based Android Malware Detector

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI methods have been proven to yield impressive performance on Android malware detection. However, most AI-based methods make predictions of suspicious samples in a black-box manner without transparency on models' inference. The expectation on models' explainability and transparency by cyber security and AI practitioners to assure the trustworthiness increases. In this article, we present a novel model-agnostic explanation method for AI models applied for Android malware detection. Our proposed method identifies and quantifies the data features relevance to the predictions by two steps: i) data perturbation that generates the synthetic data by manipulating features' values; and ii) optimization of features attribution values to seek significant changes of prediction scores on the perturbed data with minimal feature values changes. The proposed method is validated by three experiments. We firstly demonstrate that our proposed model explanation method can aid in discovering how AI models are evaded by adversarial samples quantitatively. In the following experiments, we compare the explainability and fidelity of our proposed method with state-of-the-arts, respectively.


Ceasing hate withMoH: Hate Speech Detection in Hindi-English Code-Switched Language

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Social media has become a bedrock for people to voice their opinions worldwide. Due to the greater sense of freedom with the anonymity feature, it is possible to disregard social etiquette online and attack others without facing severe consequences, inevitably propagating hate speech. The current measures to sift the online content and offset the hatred spread do not go far enough. One factor contributing to this is the prevalence of regional languages in social media and the paucity of language flexible hate speech detectors. The proposed work focuses on analyzing hate speech in Hindi-English code-switched language. Our method explores transformation techniques to capture precise text representation. To contain the structure of data and yet use it with existing algorithms, we developed MoH or Map Only Hindi, which means "Love" in Hindi. MoH pipeline consists of language identification, Roman to Devanagari Hindi transliteration using a knowledge base of Roman Hindi words. Finally, it employs the fine-tuned Multilingual Bert and MuRIL language models. We conducted several quantitative experiment studies on three datasets and evaluated performance using Precision, Recall, and F1 metrics. The first experiment studies MoH mapped text's performance with classical machine learning models and shows an average increase of 13% in F1 scores. The second compares the proposed work's scores with those of the baseline models and offers a rise in performance by 6%. Finally, the third reaches the proposed MoH technique with various data simulations using the existing transliteration library. Here, MoH outperforms the rest by 15%. Our results demonstrate a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art scores on all three datasets.


SMOTified-GAN for class imbalanced pattern classification problems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Class imbalance in a dataset is a major problem for classifiers that results in poor prediction with a high true positive rate (TPR) but a low true negative rate (TNR) for a majority positive training dataset. Generally, the pre-processing technique of oversampling of minority class(es) are used to overcome this deficiency. Our focus is on using the hybridization of Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (SMOTE) to address class imbalanced problems. We propose a novel two-phase oversampling approach that has the synergy of SMOTE and GAN. The initial data of minority class(es) generated by SMOTE is further enhanced by GAN that produces better quality samples. We named it SMOTified-GAN as GAN works on pre-sampled minority data produced by SMOTE rather than randomly generating the samples itself. The experimental results prove the sample quality of minority class(es) has been improved in a variety of tested benchmark datasets. Its performance is improved by up to 9\% from the next best algorithm tested on F1-score measurements. Its time complexity is also reasonable which is around $O(N^2d^2T)$ for a sequential algorithm.


Deep Transfer Learning Based Intrusion Detection System for Electric Vehicular Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus works as an important protocol in the real-time In-Vehicle Network (IVN) systems for its simple, suitable, and robust architecture. The risk of IVN devices has still been insecure and vulnerable due to the complex data-intensive architectures which greatly increase the accessibility to unauthorized networks and the possibility of various types of cyberattacks. Therefore, the detection of cyberattacks in IVN devices has become a growing interest. With the rapid development of IVNs and evolving threat types, the traditional machine learning-based IDS has to update to cope with the security requirements of the current environment. Nowadays, the progression of deep learning, deep transfer learning, and its impactful outcome in several areas has guided as an effective solution for network intrusion detection. This manuscript proposes a deep transfer learning-based IDS model for IVN along with improved performance in comparison to several other existing models. The unique contributions include effective attribute selection which is best suited to identify malicious CAN messages and accurately detect the normal and abnormal activities, designing a deep transfer learning-based LeNet model, and evaluating considering real-world data. To this end, an extensive experimental performance evaluation has been conducted. The architecture along with empirical analyses shows that the proposed IDS greatly improves the detection accuracy over the mainstream machine learning, deep learning, and benchmark deep transfer learning models and has demonstrated better performance for real-time IVN security.


Fast, Accurate and Interpretable Time Series Classification Through Randomization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Time series classification (TSC) aims to predict the class label of a given time series, which is critical to a rich set of application areas such as economics and medicine. State-of-the-art TSC methods have mostly focused on classification accuracy and efficiency, without considering the interpretability of their classifications, which is an important property required by modern applications such as appliance modeling and legislation such as the European General Data Protection Regulation. To address this gap, we propose a novel TSC method - the Randomized-Supervised Time Series Forest (r-STSF). r-STSF is highly efficient, achieves state-of-the-art classification accuracy and enables interpretability. r-STSF takes an efficient interval-based approach to classify time series according to aggregate values of discriminatory sub-series (intervals). To achieve state-of-the-art accuracy, r-STSF builds an ensemble of randomized trees using the discriminatory sub-series. It uses four time series representations, nine aggregation functions and a supervised binary-inspired search combined with a feature ranking metric to identify highly discriminatory sub-series. The discriminatory sub-series enable interpretable classifications. Experiments on extensive datasets show that r-STSF achieves state-of-the-art accuracy while being orders of magnitude faster than most existing TSC methods. It is the only classifier from the state-of-the-art group that enables interpretability. Our findings also highlight that r-STSF is the best TSC method when classifying complex time series datasets.


Analyzing Machine Learning Approaches for Online Malware Detection in Cloud

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The variety of services and functionality offered by various cloud service providers (CSP) have exploded lately. Utilizing such services has created numerous opportunities for enterprises infrastructure to become cloud-based and, in turn, assisted the enterprises to easily and flexibly offer services to their customers. The practice of renting out access to servers to clients for computing and storage purposes is known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The popularity of IaaS has led to serious and critical concerns with respect to the cyber security and privacy. In particular, malware is often leveraged by malicious entities against cloud services to compromise sensitive data or to obstruct their functionality. In response to this growing menace, malware detection for cloud environments has become a widely researched topic with numerous methods being proposed and deployed. In this paper, we present online malware detection based on process level performance metrics, and analyze the effectiveness of different baseline machine learning models including, Support Vector Classifier (SVC), Random Forest Classifier (RFC), KNearest Neighbor (KNN), Gradient Boosted Classifier (GBC), Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Our analysis conclude that neural network models can most accurately detect the impact malware have on the process level features of virtual machines in the cloud, and therefore are best suited to detect them. Our models were trained, validated, and tested by using a dataset of 40,680 malicious and benign samples. The dataset was complied by running different families of malware (collected from VirusTotal) in a live cloud environment and collecting the process level features.


Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.