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A Comprehensive Review of Computer-aided Whole-slide Image Analysis: from Datasets to Feature Extraction, Segmentation, Classification, and Detection Approaches

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and image scanning technology, Whole-slide Image (WSI) scanners are widely used in the field of pathological diagnosis. Therefore, WSI analysis has become the key to modern digital pathology. Since 2004, WSI has been used more and more in CAD. Since machine vision methods are usually based on semi-automatic or fully automatic computers, they are highly efficient and labor-saving. The combination of WSI and CAD technologies for segmentation, classification, and detection helps histopathologists obtain more stable and quantitative analysis results, save labor costs and improve diagnosis objectivity. This paper reviews the methods of WSI analysis based on machine learning. Firstly, the development status of WSI and CAD methods are introduced. Secondly, we discuss publicly available WSI datasets and evaluation metrics for segmentation, classification, and detection tasks. Then, the latest development of machine learning in WSI segmentation, classification, and detection are reviewed continuously. Finally, the existing methods are studied, the applicabilities of the analysis methods are analyzed, and the application prospects of the analysis methods in this field are forecasted.


Artificial Intelligence: Research Impact on Key Industries; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2020)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents a collection of accepted papers of the cancelled tri-national 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Inteeligence Symposium' planned for 13th May 2020 in Karlsruhe. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Visual Methods for Sign Language Recognition: A Modality-Based Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sign language visual recognition from continuous multi-modal streams is still one of the most challenging fields. Recent advances in human actions recognition are exploiting the ascension of GPU-based learning from massive data, and are getting closer to human-like performances. They are then prone to creating interactive services for the deaf and hearing-impaired communities. A population that is expected to grow considerably in the years to come. This paper aims at reviewing the human actions recognition literature with the sign-language visual understanding as a scope. The methods analyzed will be mainly organized according to the different types of unimodal inputs exploited, their relative multi-modal combinations and pipeline steps. In each section, we will detail and compare the related datasets, approaches then distinguish the still open contribution paths suitable for the creation of sign language related services. Special attention will be paid to the approaches and commercial solutions handling facial expressions and continuous signing.


TRECVID 2019: An Evaluation Campaign to Benchmark Video Activity Detection, Video Captioning and Matching, and Video Search & Retrieval

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TREC Video Retrieval Evaluation (TRECVID) 2019 was a TREC-style video analysis and retrieval evaluation, the goal of which remains to promote progress in research and development of content-based exploitation and retrieval of information from digital video via open, metrics-based evaluation. Over the last nineteen years this effort has yielded a better understanding of how systems can effectively accomplish such processing and how one can reliably benchmark their performance. TRECVID has been funded by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) and other US government agencies. In addition, many organizations and individuals worldwide contribute significant time and effort. TRECVID 2019 represented a continuation of four tasks from TRECVID 2018. In total, 27 teams from various research organizations worldwide completed one or more of the following four tasks: 1. Ad-hoc Video Search (AVS) 2. Instance Search (INS) 3. Activities in Extended Video (ActEV) 4. Video to Text Description (VTT) This paper is an introduction to the evaluation framework, tasks, data, and measures used in the workshop.


Learning Representations For Images With Hierarchical Labels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Image classification has been studied extensively but there has been limited work in the direction of using non-conventional, external guidance other than traditional image-label pairs to train such models. In this thesis we present a set of methods to leverage information about the semantic hierarchy induced by class labels. In the first part of the thesis, we inject label-hierarchy knowledge to an arbitrary classifier and empirically show that availability of such external semantic information in conjunction with the visual semantics from images boosts overall performance. Taking a step further in this direction, we model more explicitly the label-label and label-image interactions by using order-preserving embedding-based models, prevalent in natural language, and tailor them to the domain of computer vision to perform image classification. Although, contrasting in nature, both the CNN-classifiers injected with hierarchical information, and the embedding-based models outperform a hierarchy-agnostic model on the newly presented, real-world ETH Entomological Collection image dataset.


Hierarchical Image Classification using Entailment Cone Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Image classification has been studied extensively, but there has been limited work in using unconventional, external guidance other than traditional image-label pairs for training. We present a set of methods for leveraging information about the semantic hierarchy embedded in class labels. We first inject label-hierarchy knowledge into an arbitrary CNN-based classifier and empirically show that availability of such external semantic information in conjunction with the visual semantics from images boosts overall performance. Taking a step further in this direction, we model more explicitly the label-label and label-image interactions using order-preserving embeddings governed by both Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries, prevalent in natural language, and tailor them to hierarchical image classification and representation learning. We empirically validate all the models on the hierarchical ETHEC dataset.


Tag-based Semantic Features for Scene Image Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The existing image feature extraction methods are primarily based on the content and structure information of images, and rarely consider the contextual semantic information. Regarding some types of images such as scenes and objects, the annotations and descriptions of them available on the web may provide reliable contextual semantic information for feature extraction. In this paper, we introduce novel semantic features of an image based on the annotations and descriptions of its similar images available on the web. Specifically, we propose a new method which consists of two consecutive steps to extract our semantic features. For each image in the training set, we initially search the top $k$ most similar images from the internet and extract their annotations/descriptions (e.g., tags or keywords). The annotation information is employed to design a filter bank for each image category and generate filter words (codebook). Finally, each image is represented by the histogram of the occurrences of filter words in all categories. We evaluate the performance of the proposed features in scene image classification on three commonly-used scene image datasets (i.e., MIT-67, Scene15 and Event8). Our method typically produces a lower feature dimension than existing feature extraction methods. Experimental results show that the proposed features generate better classification accuracies than vision based and tag based features, and comparable results to deep learning based features.


A Comprehensive Survey of Deep Learning for Image Captioning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

These sources contain images that viewers would have to interpret themselves. Most images do not have a description, but the human can largely understand them without their detailed captions. However, machine needs to interpret some form of image captions if humans need automatic image captions from it. Image captioning is important for many reasons. For example, they can be used for automatic image indexing. Image indexing is important for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) and therefore, it can be applied to many areas, including biomedicine, commerce, the military, education, digital libraries, and web searching. Social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter can directly generate descriptions from images. The descriptions can include where we are (e.g., beach, cafe), what we wear and importantly what we are doing there.


Joint Dictionaries for Zero-Shot Learning

AAAI Conferences

A classic approach toward zero-shot learning (ZSL) is to map the input domain to a set of semantically meaningful attributes that could be used later on to classify unseen classes of data (e.g. visual data). In this paper, we propose to learn a visual feature dictionary that has semantically meaningful atoms. Such a dictionary is learned via joint dictionary learning for the visual domain and the attribute domain, while enforcing the same sparse coding for both dictionaries. Our novel attribute aware formulation provides an algorithmic solution to the domain shift/hubness problem in ZSL. Upon learning the joint dictionaries, images from unseen classes can be mapped into the attribute space by finding the attribute aware joint sparse representation using solely the visual data. We demonstrate that our approach provides superior or comparable performance to that of the state of the art on benchmark datasets.


SR-Clustering: Semantic Regularized Clustering for Egocentric Photo Streams Segmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While wearable cameras are becoming increasingly popular, locating relevant information in large unstructured collections of egocentric images is still a tedious and time consuming processes. This paper addresses the problem of organizing egocentric photo streams acquired by a wearable camera into semantically meaningful segments. First, contextual and semantic information is extracted for each image by employing a Convolutional Neural Networks approach. Later, by integrating language processing, a vocabulary of concepts is defined in a semantic space. Finally, by exploiting the temporal coherence in photo streams, images which share contextual and semantic attributes are grouped together. The resulting temporal segmentation is particularly suited for further analysis, ranging from activity and event recognition to semantic indexing and summarization. Experiments over egocentric sets of nearly 17,000 images, show that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods.