Reliably quantifying the confidence of deep neural classifiers is a challenging yet fundamental requirement for deploying such models in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we introduce a novel target criterion for model confidence, namely the true class probability (TCP). We show that TCP offers better properties for confidence estimation than standard maximum class probability (MCP). Since the true class is by essence unknown at test time, we propose to learn TCP criterion from data with an auxiliary model, introducing a specific learning scheme adapted to this context. We evaluate our approach on the task of failure prediction and of self-training with pseudo-labels for domain adaptation, which both necessitate effective confidence estimates. Extensive experiments are conducted for validating the relevance of the proposed approach in each task. We study various network architectures and experiment with small and large datasets for image classification and semantic segmentation. In every tested benchmark, our approach outperforms strong baselines.
For the purpose of this narrative review, we searched PubMed and MEDLINE databases with no date restriction using search terms related to AI and medicine and cardiology subspecialties. Articles were reviewed and selected for inclusion on the basis of relevance. This article highlights that the role of ML in cardiovascular medicine is rapidly emerging, and mounting evidence indicates it will power the new tools that drive the field. Among other uses, AI has been deployed to interpret echocardiograms, to automatically identify heart rhythms from an ECG, to uniquely identify an individual using the ECG as a biometric signal, and to detect the presence of heart disease such as left ventricular dysfunction from the surface ECG.6x6Attia, Z.I., Kapa, S., Lopez-Jimenez, F. et al.
Image classification has been studied extensively, but there has been limited work in using unconventional, external guidance other than traditional image-label pairs for training. We present a set of methods for leveraging information about the semantic hierarchy embedded in class labels. We first inject label-hierarchy knowledge into an arbitrary CNN-based classifier and empirically show that availability of such external semantic information in conjunction with the visual semantics from images boosts overall performance. Taking a step further in this direction, we model more explicitly the label-label and label-image interactions using order-preserving embeddings governed by both Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries, prevalent in natural language, and tailor them to hierarchical image classification and representation learning. We empirically validate all the models on the hierarchical ETHEC dataset.
Image classification has been studied extensively but there has been limited work in the direction of using non-conventional, external guidance other than traditional image-label pairs to train such models. In this thesis we present a set of methods to leverage information about the semantic hierarchy induced by class labels. In the first part of the thesis, we inject label-hierarchy knowledge to an arbitrary classifier and empirically show that availability of such external semantic information in conjunction with the visual semantics from images boosts overall performance. Taking a step further in this direction, we model more explicitly the label-label and label-image interactions by using order-preserving embedding-based models, prevalent in natural language, and tailor them to the domain of computer vision to perform image classification. Although, contrasting in nature, both the CNN-classifiers injected with hierarchical information, and the embedding-based models outperform a hierarchy-agnostic model on the newly presented, real-world ETH Entomological Collection image dataset.